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Flashcards in Behaviourist Assumptions Deck (13):

What are the assumptions of the behaviourist approach?

Humans are born like a blank slate
Behaviour learned through conditioning
Humans and animals learn in similar ways


What is the Latin term for blank slate?

Tabula rasa


What it mean by the idea that humans are born a black slate?

We have no internal content and everything has to be learned through experiences


Is the idea that humans are born a blank slate nature or nurture and why?

Nurture- social and environmental factors have the greatest influence opposed to biological factors


Why is the behaviourist approach environmentally deterministic?

They ignore genetics, evolution etc.
They focus in the idea that the associations we make in early life and early rewards/punishment provided by our environment pre-determine our later interactions


What is classical conditioning?

New behaviours learned through association


What are Ivan Pavlovs (1902) stages of classical conditioning of salivation in dogs?

Before conditioning, food = Unconditioned stimulus
Before conditioning, salivation = Unconditioned response

During conditioning, the sound of a bell = Neutral stimulus which is presented alongside the Unconditioned stimulus and this is repeated until the association occurs

After conditioning, the bell = conditioned stimulus which produces the conditioned response = salivation


What is operant conditioning?

New behaviours are learned through reinforcement which increase the chance of the behaviour happening again.


What is positive reinforcement?

Where something desirable is given in order that a behaviour will be repeated


What is negative reinforcement?

Where something undesirable is given in order that the behaviour will be repeated


What is positive punishment?

Where something undesirable is given so that a behaviour will not be repeated


What is negative punishment?

Where something desirable is taken away so that the behaviour is not repeated


What are 5 ideas as to why humans and animals learn in similar ways?

1. There are no differences in the way humans and animals learn
2. Both humans and animals are products of their environment and for both of them all behaviour is determined by stimulus response relationships
3. Humans may be more complex and therefore learn more complex behaviour but they are essentially the same
4. We can investigate the effects of conditioning on animals and apply the results to humans
5. We can generalise from animals to humans