Flashcards in Psychodynamic Assumptions Deck (22):
What are the 3 assumptions of the psychodynamic approach?
Influence of childhood experiences
The unconscious mind
What is the Id?
Aims to gain pleasure and gratification at any cost
Unconscious part of our personality
Present at birth
What is the Ego?
Balances the demands of the Id in a socially acceptable way
Conscious rational part of the mind
Develops around age 2
What is the Superego?
A persons sense of right as wrong as well as their ideal self
Seeks to perfect and civilise behaviour
Learned through identifying with ones parents, peers etc
Develops around age 4
The Id and the superego are often in conflict, how does the Ego resolve this?
It acts as a referee by considering the consequences of actions
What does each stage of the psychosexual stages represent?
The fixation of libido (sexual drives\instincts) on a different area of the body
Problems at any psychosexual stage can lead to what?
A child being fixated at the part of the body associated with this stage which will have an effect on personality
How can fixation occur?
Through frustration (when a stage is not resolved because the child’s needs have not been met) OR overindulgence (when the needs of the child are over satisfied)
What are the 5 psychosexual stages?
Oral (0-18 months)
Anal (18 months- 3 years)
Phallic (3-5 years)
Latency (5 years- puberty)
Genital (puberty onwards)
At each psychosexual stage what is the libido focus?
Oral- mouth: focus on breastfeeding
Anal- anus: focus on potty training
Phallic-genitals: masturbation and the Oedipus Complex
Latency-little/no sexual motivation- focus on understanding the world and developing relationships
Genital- genitals and heterosexual intercourse
What is the outcome of overindulgence and frustration at the oral and anal stage?
Overindulgence: they are fed too much or too often, as adults they may be optimistic or too dependent on others
Frustration: aggressive adults or full of envy
Overindulgence: messy, disorganised
Frustration: overly tidy, possessive
What are the 3 different levels of consciousness?
What is the conscious mind?
What we are currently thinking and feeling and aware of. Logical and rational
What is the preconscious mind?
The level just under the surface: what we are not currently thinking about by could be aware of it if we thought about it- similar to memories
What is the unconscious mind?
Cannot be directly accessed, it is irrational and ruled by pleasure seeking
It is where all our repressed thoughts and feelings and contained
What is a Freudian slip?
When you say something accidentally which reveals something you are unaware of. It can happen when things which are unavailable to the conscious mind seep through and have an effect in our behaviour
What are ego defence mechanisms?
When conflicts between the id, ego and superego create anxiety, the ego protects itself using ego-defence mechanisms. These defences can cause disturbed behaviour if over used
Aside from ego defence mechanisms, what are 3 other types of defence mechanisms?
Displacement: transfer of impulses from one person or object to another
Protection: undesirable thoughts are attributed to someone else
Repression: pushing painful memories deep down into our unconscious mind, so they are effectively forgotten
What is the libido focus at the phallic stage?
The Oedipus complex
What is the outcome of fixation at the phallic stage?
Self assured, vain and problems with sexuality
What is the outcome of fixation at the latency stage?
No fixation as no pleasure focus