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Flashcards in Biological Assumptions Deck (13):

What are the 3 assumptions of the biological approach?

Evolutionary influences
Localisation of brain function


What is evolution and who proposed this idea?

The gradual change of a species over generations

-proposed by Darwin


How can we use evolutionary theories in psychology?

To explain human behaviour


Darwin argued that evolution happens through natural selection which has three main assumptions, what are they?

-only a small proportion of each generation survives to reproduce
-offspring are not identical to their parents, and so each generation has a degree of variation and some can be passed on though genes
-some characteristics give animals an advantage for survival and reproduction and therefore are adaptive


What is EEA?

Environment of evolutionary adaptiveness
It is the environment to which any species is adapted and the selective pressures that existed at that time. Only behaviours that ensure survival in our environment are adaptive


What is the brain made up of and how does it receive information?

It is made up of interconnected cells called neurons, it receives information from various sensory organs such as the eyes as well as information about the position of the body, pain etc.


What is the Cerebral cortex?

The outer few millimetres of the brain and is divided into four lobes which have different functions


What are the 4 lobes in the brain and what are their functions?

Frontal- creativity and thinking- links to personality
Parietal-sensory information e.g. temperature, pain etc
Temporal- memory processing and auditory information
Occipital- visual processing. Receives information directly from the eyes


The whole of the nervous system is composed of interconnected neurons, what are they?

Long thin cells that convey messages
They can be smaller than 1mm or longer than 1m
They are billions in the brain


How do each neuron pass messages to one another?

Via small gaps between each neuron called a synapse


How are messages passed from one neuron to another?

By chemicals called neurotransmitters


What are neurotransmitters?

Chemical messengers which allow the brain to process thoughts and memories
They play a role in our health


High levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine can lead to what? And what is serotonin associated with?

1. Symptoms of schizophrenia
2.Mood and sleep