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Flashcards in Behavuourism Deck (13):

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Associations we make when young are further replicated later on. We respond passively to stimuli.


Humans and animals learn in similar ways

Able to study non human behaviour and apply it to humans. Pavlov is similar to lil albert


Classical Conditioning

Behaviours learnt through associations. Little albert procedures.


Operant Conditioning

learnt through reinforcements. positive and negative reinforcements and punishments.


Systematic Desensitisation

1. Patient taught to relax completely.
2. Hierarchy is established. Each causing increasing anxiety.
3. Patient works through hierarchy and must relax at each one.
4. Progress at their own pace.
5. Patients master the feared situation which caused them to seek help.


Support for SD

Research to support - Capafons et al. (1998) Found that people could master fear of flying in a flight simulator after 12-25 sessions.



- Not effective for all phobias as it is more appropriate for ancient fears.

- If you remove the symptoms then the cause still remains.


Ethics of SD

- Exposing someone to their fear may cause distress.

- Constructed at the clients own pace so little risk of harm.

- Patients aren’t usually mentally ill so they have free will to attend.


Systematic Desensitisation

Masserman - developed a phobia in cats of boxes.

Key to phobias is that it interferes with daily life.

Vivo - meeting the stimulus head on.
Vitro - Imagining it.


Conditioning techniques ARE appropriate.

At home - When a child misbehaves, the mother punishes by shouting this is reinforcement etc.
In school - McAllister - Teacher praise and disapproval.
Peers - Child’s peer group is what influences them.
Vulnerable children - Cheney - funhaler. (also conditioning for more social interactions.)


Aren’t appropriate

At home - Morris - Naughty step can have long term emotional effects.
In school - Lepper - Children’s motivations are destroyed by expectance of rewards.
Peers - Bricker - Peer groups make kids smoke.
Vulnerable Children - Greazy - incentives don’t always offer the best return investment.



Scientific - Watson operationalised thoughts and emotions.
SD treats undesirable symptoms and isn’t concerned with the past.
Real world apps - Used to treat phobias.



Emphasis on nurture.

Determinist of behaviour

More relevant with animals - Humans may not respond in the same way.