Bergdahl- Chapter 21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bergdahl- Chapter 21 Deck (58):

what are the two necessary factors for training for a specific aerobic activity ?

1) engage appropriate muscles required
2) provide exercise at a level sufficient to stress the system (overload principle)


how does overloading specific muscle groups induce local specific changes ?

facilitates oxygen transport and aerobic power in the trained muscles.


why is aerobic improvement specific to active muscles ? 3 factors

1) increased microcirculation
2) more effective redistribution of CO
3) combined effect of both


what is the reversibility principle ?

that detraining can occur rapidly even in trained individuals


what is the initial values principle ?

that individuals with lower fitness deliver greatest training improvement


what are the 3 main changes occurring with anaerobic power training ?

1) increased level of anaerobic substrates
2) increased quantity and activity of key enzymes that control the anaerobic phase of glucose catabolism
3) increased capacity to generate and tolerate high levels of blood lactate during all-out exercise (possibly due to better tolerance to fatigue and increased levels of glycolytic enzymes)


when exercising at max, what is the limiting factor ?

the ability to extract O2 from capillaries (not the bringing O2 to tissues)


how does exercise influence fatty acid oxidation in different exercise conditions ?

it increases it at rest and at submax


how does energy source utilization change with training ?

reduce carbohydrate as fuel


in which fibers does aerobic training elicit metabolic adaptations ?



slow twitch muscle fibers that adapt in order to generate more ATP have a large quantity of what ?



what are the attributes of cardiac hypertrophy ?

increase in heart mass
increase in heart volume (endurance have 25% larger heart volume than sedentary)
greater LV EDV during rest and exercise


what are the two different cardiac hypertrophies ?

eccentric hypertrophy (outward remodeling, increased size of LV)
concentric hypertrophy (inward remodeling, thickening of walls)


what is the difference between functional and pathological cardiac hypertrophy ?

pathological: functionally inadequate organ. in hypertension,chronic work against excessive resistance, meaning muscle cells hypertrophy to compensate for increased work.

training: temporary myocardial stress with time to recuperate.


how is systolic and diastolic function different in functional cardiac hypertrophy ?

it isn't


how is stroke volume and cardiac output different in functional cardiac hypertrophy ?

the values are higher.


how does exercise change plasma volume ?

after training, 12-20% increase in plasma volume


what does a plasma volume increase mean for other factors ?

increases EDV, SV, oxygen transport, VO2max, and temperature regulation


how does training change HR and in what exercise conditions?

decreases the intrinsic firing rate of the SA node, contributing to resting and SUBMAX exercise bradychardia


what kind of decrease of HR is found in training adaptations at rest and submax ?

rest: small decrease
submax: 12-15 bpm


how does HR reduction as training adaptation coincide with SV and CO?

HR decrease, SV and therefore CO increase


what kind of training changes SV ?

endurance training
regardless of age or gender


what are 4 factors that produce a SV increase as a training adaptation ?

1) increased internal left ventricular volume and mass
2) reduced cardiac and arterial stiffness
3) increased diastolic filling time
4) improved intrinsic cardiac contractile function


in what exercise condition will there be the greatest SV increase for both untrained and trained persons ?

transition from rest to moderate exercise


when does maximum stroke volume occur in untrained persons ?

at 40-50 % VO2 max


transitioning from rest to exercise, which variables will change for untrained and trained persons ?

untrained: small increase in SV, mostly HR
trained: increase in both SV and HR to increase CO


what is the most significant adaptation with aerobic training ? what is it due to ?

increase in cardiac output, due to increase in stroke volume


what happens as a consequence of reduced submaximal cardiac output ?

an increase in oxygen extraction in active muscles to achieve the oxygen requirement.


how does aerobic training change the a-v (mixed) O2 difference ?

increases the quantity of oxygen extracted due to more effective CO distribution to active muscles, and the enhanced capacity of trained muscle fibers to extract said oxygen


why is it so important that a-v O2 difference increases with training ?

in populations that are older, since they have a diminished capacity to improve cardiac output, they can compensate by working on oxygen extraction


how does blood flow distribution change as a result of training adaptation in submax and max exercise ?

SUBMAX: unchanged or slightly lower, because
lower cardiac output than untrained persons, therefore reduced muscle blood flow. muscle's ability to deliver and extract increases, which means the oxygen needs become proportionally smaller
- rapid changes mediated by dilation effects of nitric oxide

MAX: increases because of
- larger maximal cardiac output
- distribution of blood from non active areas (reduced SNS outflow to non-mandatory tissues)
- enlargement of CSA of vessels


aerobic training increases coronary blood flow. why ?

1) improvement in myocardial vascularization, like increase in arterial CSA, growth, capillary density
2) effective control of vascular resistance and blood distribution within the myocardium


what effect does regular aerobic training have on BP in rest and submax exercise ?

both SBP and DBP decrease
especially SBP in hypertensive ppl


how does breathing strategy change with training ?

breathing strategy which minimizes respiratory work at a given intensity


in MAXIMAL activity, how does ventilation change ?

increases due to increased tidal volume and breathing rate because maximal O2 consumption increases and therefore raises the body's oxygen requirement


in SUBMAX activity, how does ventilation change ?

reduces Ve/Vo2 (ventilatory equivalent) and lowers oxygen cost for breathing, which enhances exercise endurance since it reduces the fatiguing of ventilatory musculature and oxygen becomes freer to be used for active muscles


how do blood lactate levels change with endurance training ?

they are lowered which extends exercise duration before OBLA


what are the 4 factors that affect aerobic training response ?

1) initial level
2) intensity
3) frequency
4) duration


how does the magnitude of training response depend on initial fitness level ?

ceiling effect


how does training response depend on training intensity ?

depends on intensity of overload


at what HRmax percentage will aerobic capacity improve ?

between 55-70% HRmax
(around 40-55% HRmax for lower body exercise)


how does HRmax for swimming (upper body) compare to HRmax for running ? why ? (3 reasons)

swimming will have an HRmax that's 13 bpm lower
due to
- less stimulation from motor cortex to medulla
- less feedback stimulation from smaller muscle mass
- the horizontal body position


what kind of consequences are there from training at or slightly above the lactate threshold ?

produces benefits


how is %HRmax different from lactate threshold ?

%HRmax establishes a level of stress to overload central circulation

lactate threshold reflects capability of peripheral vasculature and active muscles to sustain steady rate aerobic metabolism


how is exercise mode important for training adaptation ?

training has to be specific- ppl on bike will show greater improvement when tested on bike.


how much time needed to see improvements in aerobic fitness ?

several weeks (linear relationship between training duration and VO2max)


what are the limits for developing fitness capacity closely relate to ? for which fitness types ?

for maximal aerobic, anaerobic, especially adaptations of muscle enzymes


what are the two factors to take into consideration for proper aerobic training overload ?

- must be intense enough to increase SV and CO
- must occur from activation of sport-specific muscle groups in order to enhance local circulation


what are the advantages of 10 s exercise bouts in interval training ?

they permit completion of intense exercise without appreciable lactate buildup since you're relying on PCr for energy source


what is continuous training ? what are its advantages ?

steady-paced, prolonged exercise at moderate or high intensity, 60-80% VO2 max
suits novices who wish to accumulate a large caloric expenditure, and allows endurance athletes to exsercise at nearly the same intensity as actual competition


what is the advantage of Fartlek training ?

alternate running at fast and slow speeds over different terrain, can overload all three energy systems. adds freedom and variety to workouts.


what is the sympathetic form of overtraining ?

less common
increases SNS during rest


what is the parasympathetic form of overtraining ?

more common
induces more fatigue


muscle girth and fiber size in resistance and aerobic training ?

resistance : big
aerobic: small


capillary density in resistance and aerobic training

resistance: decreased
aerobic: increased


short term endurance in resistance and aerobic training

resistance: yes
aerobic: not much


VO2 in resistance and aerobic training

resistance: nope
aerobic: yes


strength and power in resistance and aerobic training

resistance: yes
aerobic: not much