Flashcards in Bergdahl- Chapter 21 Deck (58):
what are the two necessary factors for training for a specific aerobic activity ?
1) engage appropriate muscles required
2) provide exercise at a level sufficient to stress the system (overload principle)
how does overloading specific muscle groups induce local specific changes ?
facilitates oxygen transport and aerobic power in the trained muscles.
why is aerobic improvement specific to active muscles ? 3 factors
1) increased microcirculation
2) more effective redistribution of CO
3) combined effect of both
what is the reversibility principle ?
that detraining can occur rapidly even in trained individuals
what is the initial values principle ?
that individuals with lower fitness deliver greatest training improvement
what are the 3 main changes occurring with anaerobic power training ?
1) increased level of anaerobic substrates
2) increased quantity and activity of key enzymes that control the anaerobic phase of glucose catabolism
3) increased capacity to generate and tolerate high levels of blood lactate during all-out exercise (possibly due to better tolerance to fatigue and increased levels of glycolytic enzymes)
when exercising at max, what is the limiting factor ?
the ability to extract O2 from capillaries (not the bringing O2 to tissues)
how does exercise influence fatty acid oxidation in different exercise conditions ?
it increases it at rest and at submax
how does energy source utilization change with training ?
reduce carbohydrate as fuel
in which fibers does aerobic training elicit metabolic adaptations ?
slow twitch muscle fibers that adapt in order to generate more ATP have a large quantity of what ?
what are the attributes of cardiac hypertrophy ?
increase in heart mass
increase in heart volume (endurance have 25% larger heart volume than sedentary)
greater LV EDV during rest and exercise
what are the two different cardiac hypertrophies ?
eccentric hypertrophy (outward remodeling, increased size of LV)
concentric hypertrophy (inward remodeling, thickening of walls)
what is the difference between functional and pathological cardiac hypertrophy ?
pathological: functionally inadequate organ. in hypertension,chronic work against excessive resistance, meaning muscle cells hypertrophy to compensate for increased work.
training: temporary myocardial stress with time to recuperate.
how is systolic and diastolic function different in functional cardiac hypertrophy ?
how is stroke volume and cardiac output different in functional cardiac hypertrophy ?
the values are higher.
how does exercise change plasma volume ?
after training, 12-20% increase in plasma volume
what does a plasma volume increase mean for other factors ?
increases EDV, SV, oxygen transport, VO2max, and temperature regulation
how does training change HR and in what exercise conditions?
decreases the intrinsic firing rate of the SA node, contributing to resting and SUBMAX exercise bradychardia
what kind of decrease of HR is found in training adaptations at rest and submax ?
rest: small decrease
submax: 12-15 bpm
how does HR reduction as training adaptation coincide with SV and CO?
HR decrease, SV and therefore CO increase
what kind of training changes SV ?
regardless of age or gender
what are 4 factors that produce a SV increase as a training adaptation ?
1) increased internal left ventricular volume and mass
2) reduced cardiac and arterial stiffness
3) increased diastolic filling time
4) improved intrinsic cardiac contractile function
in what exercise condition will there be the greatest SV increase for both untrained and trained persons ?
transition from rest to moderate exercise
when does maximum stroke volume occur in untrained persons ?
at 40-50 % VO2 max
transitioning from rest to exercise, which variables will change for untrained and trained persons ?
untrained: small increase in SV, mostly HR
trained: increase in both SV and HR to increase CO
what is the most significant adaptation with aerobic training ? what is it due to ?
increase in cardiac output, due to increase in stroke volume
what happens as a consequence of reduced submaximal cardiac output ?
an increase in oxygen extraction in active muscles to achieve the oxygen requirement.
how does aerobic training change the a-v (mixed) O2 difference ?
increases the quantity of oxygen extracted due to more effective CO distribution to active muscles, and the enhanced capacity of trained muscle fibers to extract said oxygen
why is it so important that a-v O2 difference increases with training ?
in populations that are older, since they have a diminished capacity to improve cardiac output, they can compensate by working on oxygen extraction
how does blood flow distribution change as a result of training adaptation in submax and max exercise ?
SUBMAX: unchanged or slightly lower, because
lower cardiac output than untrained persons, therefore reduced muscle blood flow. muscle's ability to deliver and extract increases, which means the oxygen needs become proportionally smaller
- rapid changes mediated by dilation effects of nitric oxide
MAX: increases because of
- larger maximal cardiac output
- distribution of blood from non active areas (reduced SNS outflow to non-mandatory tissues)
- enlargement of CSA of vessels
aerobic training increases coronary blood flow. why ?
1) improvement in myocardial vascularization, like increase in arterial CSA, growth, capillary density
2) effective control of vascular resistance and blood distribution within the myocardium
what effect does regular aerobic training have on BP in rest and submax exercise ?
both SBP and DBP decrease
especially SBP in hypertensive ppl
how does breathing strategy change with training ?
breathing strategy which minimizes respiratory work at a given intensity
in MAXIMAL activity, how does ventilation change ?
increases due to increased tidal volume and breathing rate because maximal O2 consumption increases and therefore raises the body's oxygen requirement
in SUBMAX activity, how does ventilation change ?
reduces Ve/Vo2 (ventilatory equivalent) and lowers oxygen cost for breathing, which enhances exercise endurance since it reduces the fatiguing of ventilatory musculature and oxygen becomes freer to be used for active muscles
how do blood lactate levels change with endurance training ?
they are lowered which extends exercise duration before OBLA
what are the 4 factors that affect aerobic training response ?
1) initial level
how does the magnitude of training response depend on initial fitness level ?
how does training response depend on training intensity ?
depends on intensity of overload
at what HRmax percentage will aerobic capacity improve ?
between 55-70% HRmax
(around 40-55% HRmax for lower body exercise)
how does HRmax for swimming (upper body) compare to HRmax for running ? why ? (3 reasons)
swimming will have an HRmax that's 13 bpm lower
- less stimulation from motor cortex to medulla
- less feedback stimulation from smaller muscle mass
- the horizontal body position
what kind of consequences are there from training at or slightly above the lactate threshold ?
how is %HRmax different from lactate threshold ?
%HRmax establishes a level of stress to overload central circulation
lactate threshold reflects capability of peripheral vasculature and active muscles to sustain steady rate aerobic metabolism
how is exercise mode important for training adaptation ?
training has to be specific- ppl on bike will show greater improvement when tested on bike.
how much time needed to see improvements in aerobic fitness ?
several weeks (linear relationship between training duration and VO2max)
what are the limits for developing fitness capacity closely relate to ? for which fitness types ?
for maximal aerobic, anaerobic, especially adaptations of muscle enzymes
what are the two factors to take into consideration for proper aerobic training overload ?
- must be intense enough to increase SV and CO
- must occur from activation of sport-specific muscle groups in order to enhance local circulation
what are the advantages of 10 s exercise bouts in interval training ?
they permit completion of intense exercise without appreciable lactate buildup since you're relying on PCr for energy source
what is continuous training ? what are its advantages ?
steady-paced, prolonged exercise at moderate or high intensity, 60-80% VO2 max
suits novices who wish to accumulate a large caloric expenditure, and allows endurance athletes to exsercise at nearly the same intensity as actual competition
what is the advantage of Fartlek training ?
alternate running at fast and slow speeds over different terrain, can overload all three energy systems. adds freedom and variety to workouts.
what is the sympathetic form of overtraining ?
increases SNS during rest
what is the parasympathetic form of overtraining ?
induces more fatigue
muscle girth and fiber size in resistance and aerobic training ?
resistance : big
capillary density in resistance and aerobic training
short term endurance in resistance and aerobic training
aerobic: not much
VO2 in resistance and aerobic training