B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning Deck (45):
1

_ _ involved an automatic response to a stimulus

Classical conditioning

2

_ _ involves learning how to control one's response to a elicit a reward or avoid a punishment

Operant conditioning

3

In operant conditioning, the _ controls his or her response

subject

4

Skinner used a process called _ to teach the rats to press the bar for food

shaping

5

The food in the rat case is referred to as a _, since it reinforces the rat's behavior of stepping closer to and eventually pressing the bar

reinforcement

6

In a _-_ schedule, behavior is reinforced after a set number of responses

fixed-ratio

7

_-_ is when reinforcement is provided after a variable number of responses

Variable-ratio

8

_-_ when reinforcement is based on a time schedule

Fixed-interval

9

_-_ when reinforcement is provided from time to time at a variable rate but is not dependent on how many times the rat pressed the bar

Variable-interval

10

When does the animal press the bar at a slow but steady rate since it has no idea how long it has to wait for it's reward?

Variable-interval

11

What is an innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink?

Primary reinforcer

12

What is a learned reinforcer that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary reinforcer?

Conditioned or secondary reinforcer

13

Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

Reinforcement

14

Removing an unpleasant reinforcer

Negative reinforcement

15

Introducing an unpleasant stimulus or withholding a pleasant stimulus

Punishment

16

Punishment usually leads to what 6 negative effects?

1. Unwanted fears
2. No information
3. Justifies pain to others
4. Unwanted behaviors reappear
5. Causes aggression towards the agent
6. Unwanted behavior replaces the old behavior

17

The operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations

Shaping

18

A reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior

Immediate reinforcer

19

A reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior

Delayed reinforcer

20

Reinforces the desired response each time it occurs

Continuous reinforcement

21

Reinforces a response only part of the time

Partial reinforcement

22

The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake

Intrinsic Motivation

23

The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments

Extrinsic Motivation

24

Which psychologist did the experiment with the Bobo dolls?

Bandura

25

The adult was praised and received treats at the end of the film; he was rewarded for his aggressive behavior toward the Bobo doll

Aggression-rewarded

26

The adult was punished by being called a bully, swatted, and made to cower

Agression-punished

27

The adult was neither rewarded nor punished for his aggressive behavior toward the Bobo doll

No consequences

28

Children in the _-_ group expressed the fewest aggressive behaviors toward the Bobo dolls

Aggression-Punished

29

Children in the other 2 groups expressed an equal number of aggressive behaviors and were more aggressive than children in the _-_ group

Aggression-Punished

30

Researchers observed their behavior and found that the children who had watched the _-_ and the _ _ films were equally likely to behave aggressively toward the Bobo doll

Aggression-Rewarded
No Consequences

31

When were all 3 groups equally aggressive?

When they were promised rewards

32

Who did experiments on dogs?

Seligman

33

Thought dogs would learn to _ shock

Avoid

34

Dogs placed in harness and given _

Shocks

35

_ _ research in the late 1960’s addressed the question of how we react to repeated and unavoidable shocks or torture

Martin Seligman's

36

Seligman studied the ability of dogs to learn _ _ when given an electric shock

Avoidance Behaviors

37

He placed dogs into harnesses (much as Pavlov had done) then gave them a series of shocks paired with a _ _ (also similar to Pavlov’s experiment)

Conditioned Stimulus

38

He gave the _ no opportunity to escape the shock

Dogs

39

Seligman next placed the same dogs into boxes that allowed them to escape the shock by jumping over a _

Hurdle

40

Seligman named his discovery _ _, because the dogs had apparently learned that they had no control over their situation

Learned Helplessness

41

Even when they did gain control and had access to a method by which they could avoid the shock, they had internalized their sense of _ to such a degree that they did not learn how to escape being shocked

Helplessness

42

Significant in the study of depression in humans

Learned Helplessness

43

This experiment showed the importance of having a sense of control over the situations in which we find ourselves

Dog experiment

44

People who have a sense of _ _ are more likely than others to feel depressed because they do not feel that they can control what happens to them

Learned Helplessness

45

Residents who received control over such decisions as what time to perform various activities and where to sit when guests arrive, or who were given plants to take care of (rather than having the staff take care of the plants), exhibited a greater sense of control and were less _ than residents who did not receive these options

Depressed