Flashcards in B.F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning Deck (45):
_ _ involved an automatic response to a stimulus
_ _ involves learning how to control one's response to a elicit a reward or avoid a punishment
In operant conditioning, the _ controls his or her response
Skinner used a process called _ to teach the rats to press the bar for food
The food in the rat case is referred to as a _, since it reinforces the rat's behavior of stepping closer to and eventually pressing the bar
In a _-_ schedule, behavior is reinforced after a set number of responses
_-_ is when reinforcement is provided after a variable number of responses
_-_ when reinforcement is based on a time schedule
_-_ when reinforcement is provided from time to time at a variable rate but is not dependent on how many times the rat pressed the bar
When does the animal press the bar at a slow but steady rate since it has no idea how long it has to wait for it's reward?
What is an innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink?
What is a learned reinforcer that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary reinforcer?
Conditioned or secondary reinforcer
Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Removing an unpleasant reinforcer
Introducing an unpleasant stimulus or withholding a pleasant stimulus
Punishment usually leads to what 6 negative effects?
1. Unwanted fears
2. No information
3. Justifies pain to others
4. Unwanted behaviors reappear
5. Causes aggression towards the agent
6. Unwanted behavior replaces the old behavior
The operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through successive approximations
A reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior
A reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior
Reinforces the desired response each time it occurs
Reinforces a response only part of the time
The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments
Which psychologist did the experiment with the Bobo dolls?
The adult was praised and received treats at the end of the film; he was rewarded for his aggressive behavior toward the Bobo doll
The adult was punished by being called a bully, swatted, and made to cower
The adult was neither rewarded nor punished for his aggressive behavior toward the Bobo doll
Children in the _-_ group expressed the fewest aggressive behaviors toward the Bobo dolls
Children in the other 2 groups expressed an equal number of aggressive behaviors and were more aggressive than children in the _-_ group
Researchers observed their behavior and found that the children who had watched the _-_ and the _ _ films were equally likely to behave aggressively toward the Bobo doll
When were all 3 groups equally aggressive?
When they were promised rewards
Who did experiments on dogs?
Thought dogs would learn to _ shock
Dogs placed in harness and given _
_ _ research in the late 1960’s addressed the question of how we react to repeated and unavoidable shocks or torture
Seligman studied the ability of dogs to learn _ _ when given an electric shock
He placed dogs into harnesses (much as Pavlov had done) then gave them a series of shocks paired with a _ _ (also similar to Pavlov’s experiment)
He gave the _ no opportunity to escape the shock
Seligman next placed the same dogs into boxes that allowed them to escape the shock by jumping over a _
Seligman named his discovery _ _, because the dogs had apparently learned that they had no control over their situation
Even when they did gain control and had access to a method by which they could avoid the shock, they had internalized their sense of _ to such a degree that they did not learn how to escape being shocked
Significant in the study of depression in humans
This experiment showed the importance of having a sense of control over the situations in which we find ourselves
People who have a sense of _ _ are more likely than others to feel depressed because they do not feel that they can control what happens to them