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Flashcards in Stress Deck (91):
1

_ is the arousal of a persons mind and body in response to demands made upon them which forces a person to adapt, cope or adjust to various circumstances.

Stress

2

Not all stress is _

Bad

3

_ can increase sharpness and motivation and keep people alert and involved

Stress

4

Positive stress is called _

Eustress

5

_ can be a sign that a person is taking on a challenge or trying to reach a goal

Eustress

6

_ _ or _ is linked to intense pressure or anxiety that can have severe short term and/or long term, psychological and physiological issues

Negative Stress
Distress

7

When stress becomes too _ or _, it can strain people’s ability to adjust to various situations

Severe
Prolonged

8

High School and college students often experience stress that is related to what 5 things?

family problems
relationships
pressures at school
loneliness
general nervousness

9

Stress is the main reason most _ and _ college students seek help at college counseling centers

Freshman
Sophomore

10

The event or situation that produces stress is called a _

stressor

11

However, what is a _ for one person may not be a _ for another

stressor
stressor

12

One person may find a long plane flight _ and like a _ _ another person might find the same plane flight _ and _

Relaxing
Mini Vacation
Stressful
Unpleasant

13

However some stressors are _ to nearly all people

common

14

When stress and stressors pile up on one another, we can reach a point where we have difficulty _

coping

15

It is important to recognize some of the causes of _

Stress

16

One of the most common sources of stress is _-being blocked from obtaining a goal

Frustration

17

The everyday frustrations we all experience are called _ _

Daily Hassles

18

What are the 8 main types of daily hassles?

Household Hassles
Health Hassles
Time-Pressure Hassles
Inner Concern Hassles
Environmental Hassles
Financial Hassles
Work Hassles
Future Security Hassles

19

Preparing meals, laundry, children, cleaning, shopping, cutting grass

Household Hassles

20

including illness, pregnancy, anxiety about medical tests or dental appointments, side effects of medications

Health Hassles

21

including the feeling that there are too many things to do, too many responsibilities, and not enough time to get done what you feel needs to be done

Time-Pressure Hassles

22

including feeling of low self esteem and loneliness

Inner Concern Hassles

23

noise, crowding, pollution, traffic and crime

Environmental Hassles

24

concerns about paying current bills, repaying loans, saving for the future

Financial Hassles

25

Researchers _ _ and _ _ (1967) attempted to rank the effects of various life changes according to the amount of stress each produced

Thomas Holmes
Richard Rahe

26

The life changes in the stress experiment ranked from the _ _ _ _ to less upsetting events such as a _ _ _, _ _, _ _ _

Death of a Spouse
Change in sleep
Eating habits
Going on Vacation

27

Even life changes that are _ can produce stress because they require a certain amount of adjustment

Enjoyable

28

According to _and _, too much of a good thing can even make a person sick

Holmes
Rache

29

Too many life changes, even good ones, can cause stress that leads to _, _ _ _, _, and other health issues.

Headaches
High Blood Pressure
Accidents

30

_ stress that causes a person to be pulled in 2 or more directions by opposing forces or motives

Conflict

31

Psychologists have identified what 4 types of conflicts?

Approach-Approach Conflict
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
Multiple Approach Avoidance Conflict

32

_-_ _ is the least stressful type of conflict because the choices are positive

Approach-Approach Conflict

33

An Approach Approach Conflict is usually resolved by _ _ _

Making a Decision

34

However, after the decision is made, the person may still have persistent _ _ about whether or not they have made the right decision

Self Doubts

35

The decision maker in the _ _ _ situation may not feel settled until they are in a new situation and know that things are going to work out

Approach Approach Conflict

36

_ _ and the getting _ to a new setting and people are usually what helps Approach Approach Conflict fade

Time Passing
Accustomed

37

People in this type of conflict are forced to choose the “lesser of 2 evils”-that is, to choose between 2 unsatisfactory alternatives

Avoidance Avoidance Conflicts

38

A choice of whether or not to do something when part of the situation is attractive but the other is not

Approach-Avoidance Conflict

39

People face this type conflict when a choice is both good and bad at the same time

Approach-Avoidance Conflict

40

Several alternative courses of action has its advantages and disadvantages

Multiple Approach Avoidance

41

Some people actually create their own _

Stress

42

Psychologists have classified people into what 2 basic personality types?

Type A (Intense)
Type B (Laid back)

43

Always on the go; Put pressure on themselves and are constantly under stress; Highly driven, competitive and impatient

Type A

44

_ _ people always feel rushed and pressured because they operate at full speed and become annoyed when there is even the slightest delay

Type A

45

They are irritable when they have to wait in line

Type A

46

They walk, eat, and talk faster than other people, and they are generally quick to become angry

Type A

47

They are more patient and more relaxed, do not become angry as easily, and are typically less driven

Type B

48

While _ _ people often earn more money than _ _ people do, _ _ people pay a heavy price for their success

Type A
Type B
Type A

49

Research shows that _ _ people run a much greater health risk than _ _ people

Type A
Type B

50

What health risks are higher among Type A personality people?

Coronary Heart Disease
Hypertension
Depression
Divorce rates
Suicide

51

What are the 5 responses to stress?

Self-Efficacy Expectations
Psychological Hardiness
Sense of Humor
Predictability
Social Support

52

Different stressful situations produce similar responses by the body

General Adaption Syndrome

53

GAS has what 3 stages?

Alarm reaction
Resistance Stage
Exhaustion Stage

54

initiated when a stressor is perceived

Alarm Reaction

55

Alarm Reaction mobilizes the body for defensive action; this is sometimes referred to as _ or _ reaction

Flight
Fight

56

people attempt to find a way to cope with the stressor to avoid being overwhelmed by their negative reactions to the stressor

Resistance Stage

57

the adrenal and other glands activated by the fight-or-flight reaction can no longer continue to secrete hormones

Exhaustion Stage

58

Continued stress during the exhaustion stage may cause people to develop health problems ranging from _ and _ to _ and _ _-even _

Allergies
Hives
Ulcers
Heart Disease
Death

59

_ and _ protect the body from allergic reactions (such as difficulty breathing)

Corticosteroids
ACTH

60

Hormones are still being released but at _ levels than in the alarm stage

Lower

61

may involve socially unacceptable behavior (substance abuse or aggression) running away from one’s problems (withdrawal), or self-deception (use of defensive mechanisms)

Defensive Coping

62

Used by many adolescents and adults to try and reduce the feelings of stress

Substance Abuse

63

Some people use aggression and violence to cope with stressful situations

Aggression

64

some people withdraw from a stressful situation because they are frightened, feel helpless, or believe that any decision they make will be a mistake

Withdrawal

65

is the ultimate form of withdrawal

Suicide

66

methods the ego, according to Freud, uses to avoid recognizing ideas or emotions that may cause personal anxiety

Defense Mechanisms

67

develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses (id) and social restraints (superego)

Personality

68

Source of energy for the personality

Id

69

Primitive, unconscious reservoir that contains the basic motives, drives, and instinctive desires

Id

70

Acts on impulses

Id

71

Pushes for immediate gratification

Id

72

Conscience and the Ego Ideal

Superego

73

In charge of values and morals (learned from authority figures such as parents)

Superego

74

Inner voice of “shoulds” and “should nots”

Superego

75

individual’s view of the kind of person he or she should strive to become

Ego Ideal

76

Frequently opposes id’s desires

Ego Ideal

77

The Rational Mind

Ego

78

Referee between Superego and Id

Ego

79

Must make decisions that satisfy no part of the personality completely, but keeps the whole out of trouble

Ego

80

What are the 8 defense mechanisms?

Repression
Projection
Rationalization
Reaction Formation
Displacement
Denial
Regression
Sublimation

81

One of the main Freudian defense mechanisms

Repression

82

removes anxiety causing ideas from conscious awareness by pushing them into the unconscious

Repression

83

Freud compared peoples personalities to

Teakettles

84

But acknowledging these urges would cause a person serious feelings of _, _, and _

Guilt, Anxiety, and Shame

85

The use of self deception to justify unacceptable behavior or ideas

Rationalization

86

The transfer of an idea or impulse from a threatening or unsuitable object to a less threatening object

Displacement

87

Freud believed that when an individual is under a great deal of stress they will return to behavior that is characteristics of an earlier stage of development

Regression

88

Freud believed people sometimes deal with unacceptable impulses by projecting these impulses outward onto other people

Projection

89

As a result of this Projection, they may think of the world as a _ place

Dangerous

90

people who use the RF act contrary to their genuine feelings in order to keep their true feelings hidden

Reaction Formation

91

a person refuses to accept reality of anything that is bad or upsetting

Denial