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PSY2002 Cognitive > Bias > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bias Deck (18)
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1
Q
Norms
A
Rules of action / thought which define optimality

Rationality is a set of norms

Be consistent- coherent

Correspond to reality
2
Q
Availability bias
A
Over estimating

Over estimate frequency- vivid but unlikely events
3
Q
Framing bias
A
Switching your decision based on the question framing
4
Q
Expected utility theory
A
Calculating the option with the highest expected utility is a decision making method (choose the most efficient outcome)
5
Q
Value is not a utility
A
Utility is compressed with respect to value

Value in relation to cost

Utility- how much you enjoy/ prefer it
6
Q
Calculating expected utility
A
E = p x U

Expected utility = probability x uncertainty

Eg E of bet with 50% chance of £40 is £20= 0.5 x 20

Expected utility and see whether this is greater than the cost of the gamble initially
7
Q
Effect of uncertainty
A
Top- things will most likely be okay but could be very good or bad

Middle- things will probably be good, small chance they might go bad

Bottom- things could be good or bad
8
Q
Why we use heuristics

Rationality is bounded
A
The world is complex

Decisions need to be made quickly

Our time is limited

Cog capacities are limited

Use heuristics
9
Q
Why we use heuristics

Ecological rationality
A
Correspondence with the environment is more important than coherence (logic processing)

To fit well with environment much better to food correspondence than coherence
10
Q
Adaptive value
A
Evolutionary

Decisions in line with environment- benefits outweigh costs

Evolution maximises long term expected value
11
Q
Recognition heuristics
A
Some knowledge and likelihood of hearing an option correlated with its importance/ value / size


Do not work- know too much/ too little/ incidence is not related to value
12
Q
Wason’s selection task
A
E X 1 6

All cards with a vowel on one side have an even number on other side

Confirmation bias- most people pick E and 6, when E and 1 test rule
13
Q
Wason 2-4-6 task
A
Given 3 numbers, have to come up with another set of numbers which fit the same rule

Most people think of rule (confirmation bias)- ascending numbers and generate example with fits
14
Q
Positive test
A
Positive test- seek to verify hypothesis but can be found false

Negative test- seek to falsify hypothesis but can be found true

Which is best depends on what you believe and how relates to truth

Positive test always confirms belief
15
Q
System 1

Heuristic
A
Quick

Automatic

Effortless

Unconscious
16
Q
System 2

Rational
A
Slow

Deliberate

Effortful

Conscious
17
Q
Dual process theory of 2 systems
A
Features should go together- no conscious heuristic thinking, no unconscious rational thinking

Switch between modes of thinking in right circumstances-> more time= more deliberate thinking
18
Q
Decision biases
A
Features of normal cognitive processes

Part of thinking- not an optional extra