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Flashcards in Skill Deck (19)
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1

Nature of automatic processing stroop


The stroop task (1935)

Colour naming- name the colour when it actually in another colour
Name the colour when the word is another colour

Congruent or conflict

Word reading (automatic = faster) interferes with colour naming (controller = slower)

2

Flanker

Respond to central arrow

>><>>

Harder when arrow go opposite ways

3

Simon

Push the named button- press with left or right hand

Eg. On screen have X LEFT

Press with right hand (congruent)
Press with left hand (incongruent)

4

Go / no go task

Majority of responses require you to press a button but if you see

Eg 3

Do not press

5

Durgin 2000

Respond to stroop stimuli by pointing at coloured patch

Colours interfered with word naming but not other way round - reverse stroop effect

People can name the colours without being influenced by the word, can’t name the word without being influenced by the colour

6

Glaser and glaser

1988

Presented colour and word component of stroop stimuli at different times

No amount of head start for colour info produced interference on word reading

More to automaticity than just speed of processing

7

Macleod and Dunbar

1988

Trained ppts to shapes with colour word

Trained people to respond to colour names to shapes

Then interfere them

Initially- colour interferes with naming shape

After extensive training- shape interferes with naming colours- automaticity can be learnt

Continuum

8

Habit

Stimulus response

Overlearnt stimulus response pairs

Triggered by environment

Rapid

Stereotyped

Inflexible

Ballistic

9

Bebko

2005

Either skills are not habit or habits are not like that

Transfer, control, automatic processing in a complex motor task

Habits are automatic but skills are not

Similar to habits- low attentional demands

10

Logan and crump

2010

Research on typing

Self report and inter-key interval typing speed

erred condition, error corrected condition

When error corrected, stated not made mistake, error inserted= took ownership
= illusion authorship

Typing speed slowed when they had made a real error even if not told about not
Speed of typing not affected by believing about making an error

Typing skills controlled by hierarchal loops
Outer: language comprehension and generation- sensitive to visual feedback
Inner: translate intention into finger movement- finger / keyboard interactions

11

Hierarchical control

Frees attention to regulate hard parts

Misallocation of attention can disrupt performance

12

Yerkes Dodson law

Inverted U relationship between arousal and performance

Shifts to right and heightens when we train and arousal is greater

Higher arousals increase performance

13

Choking

Soccer players

Ask people to focus as hard as they could on what they were doing or asked to perform second interfering task (dual paradigm)

Experts- best under dual task condition, only right footed

Novices- best under skill focused condition

14

Ironic processing

Try not to think about something involves thinking about it

Effort to do something evokes its own contradiction

15

Ericssons theory of deliberate practice

Found performance continued to improve after years of practice in factory workers

16

Deliberate practice

Effortful extensive practice

Breaks skill into components

Focus on reducing errors

Use of targets

Individually tailored training

17

Elite violinist

4-5 hours practice a day

Naps

Obtained feedback

Trained difficult stuff

18

Errors in figure skating

Win gold made more training errors than those who went to win silver and bronze- as they practised beyond their current limit

Have to practice skill that is outside of comport zone

Practice alone not enough- deliberate practice is main influence

19

Macnamara and maitra

2019

Practice alone does not make an expert

Double blind assessment- researcher not know if novice or expert

If deliberate practice was sole determinant of skills- skilled students would accelerate much more than good

Not the case- good students who put in as much effort achieved similar levels