What does Vmax mean?
Maximum velocity of the reaction
What does Km mean?
Concentration of substrate that gives half of the Vmax
What type of curve is the oxygen haemoglobin dissociation curve?
What causes a right shift in the oxygen haemoglobin dissociation curve?
Increased CO2 Increased Acid Increased 2,3-DPG Increased Exercise Increased Temperature (CADET look right!)
What curve is followed by myoglobin?
Hyperbolic (michaelis menten kinetics)
How does competitive inhibition affect the Km and Vmax?
Vmax remains the same
Km will vary
How does non-competitive inhibition affect the Km and Vmax?
Km stays the same
What is the key enzyme of glycolysis?
How much ATP is used and produced in the TCA cycle?
2 ATP used
Net = 2 ATP
Where does glycolysis take place?
Where does the krebs cycle take place?
Where does electron transport occur?
inner mitochondrial membrane
What is responsible for product entry in the TCA cycle?
What is responsivel for product exit in TCA cycle?
Which Ig is found in mucosa?
Which Ig is found in breast milk?
Which Ig is associated with hypersensitivity?
What receptors does IgE bind to to bring about a response?
What is the most common type of antibody?
What is the first antibody to appear in response to an antigen?
What bacteria produces endotoxin?
Gram negative bacteria
What bacteria produces exotoxin?
Gram positive bacteria
What antibiotic is used for gram positive cover?
What are mycin antibiotics used for (e.g. clarithromycin)?
What is the inheritance pattern of CF?
Autosomal recessive (25%)
What are characteristics of an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern?
2 mutated copies required
Parents usually unaffected (carriers)
Not seen in every generation
What is an oncogene?
A gene with the potential to cause cancer
Name an oncogene
What do oncogenes do?
Stimulate cell growth and inhibit death
Name tumour suppressor genes
What is the function of tumour suppressor genes?
Inhibit cell growth and stimulate death
What division of the ANS controls erection?
What division of the ANS controls ejaculation?
Point and Shoot
What cells produce myelin sheath in the PNS?
What are the insulating cells of the CNS called?
What is the function of Astrocytes in the CNS?
What is the function of microglia in the CNS?
What colour do gram positive bacteria stain?
What shapes are gram positive bacteria?
Cocci or Bacilli
What toxin is produced by gram positive bacteria?
What bacteria is gram positive bacteria in clusters?
Usually staphylococcus (S. aureus)
What bacteria is gram positive bacteria in chains?
S. pneumoniae (alpha haemolytic)
What colour does gram-negative bacteria stain?
What toxin does gram-negative bacteria produce?
Increase in cell number
Increase in cell size
Decrease in cell size
Change from one mature cell type to another
New growth not in response to stimulus
Disordered growth without stimulus
Organised cell death