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Flashcards in Bio quiz 1 revision Deck (75):
1

General cell size?

1-100microns

2

Difference between animal & plant cells?

Plants contain: cell wall, chloroplasts, central vacuole, rarely poses cilia

3

Basic cell structure of prokaryotes...?

characteristic of bacterial cells
NO nucleus (DNA nucleoid)
NO membrane-bound organelles
very small (<5 microns diameter)
almost always have cell wall
some have flagella (NEVER cilia)
Also may contain: plasmid, capsule or slime layer, pili, ribosomes, food granules, plasma membrane, cytoplasm

4

Which organ are involved in biosynthesis?

nucleus - stores info for construction (DNA)
ER - ribosomes attach, translate RNA -> proteins
Golgi apparatus - modifies & packages synthesised molecules for delivery to where they are needed
Vesicles - delivery containers between organelles

5

What is energy conversion? Where does it occur?

Fuel molecules (lipids/sugars) -> ATP
initial processing -> cytosol
MAIN PROCESSING -> mitochondria -> ATP -> cytoplasm for use where needed

6

Breakdown of food/organelles occurs where?

lysosomes (vesicles with hydrolytic enzymes at low pH)

7

System involved with synthesis & packing of enzymes?

endomembrane system

8

Importing & exporting molecules occurs how...?

Via cell membrane & associated proteins
- invagination or evagination of cell membrane
- binding to specific transport proteins
- passive transport via channels

9

T or F - All functional cells engage in reproduction.

False - most do but some do not eg. red blood cells

10

Which structures pull chromosomes to opposite sides of dividing cells?

microfilaments

11

Atomic number & atomic weight of an element?

atomic number = no. of protons
atomic weight = no. of protons + no. of neutrons

12

T or F - electrons have a key role in bond formation & energy transfer

true

13

What kinds of bonds do electrons enable?

ionic (electrons transferred)
covalent (electrons shared) - strongest bond
- polar covalent
- nonpolar covalent

14

Least & most number of covalent bonds in element...?

least (1) - hydrogen H
most (5) - phosphorus P

15

Hydrogen bonds...?

usually occur between H & O or H & N
occur among water, sugars, protein, DNA molecules

16

Acids do what?

give up protons in solution

17

Bases do what?

accept protons

18

H2CO3 is a what? Why?

buffer cause it soaks up H+ ions as pH decreases & releases H+ions as pH rises

19

Define specific heat...

amount of heat required to raise 1g of a substance by 1 degree celsius

20

Define the high heat of vaporisation theory...

energy absorbed when water changes from liquid -> gas
-> evaporates -> draws heat from organism -> cooling it

21

Define the heat of fusion theory...

H2O gives up heat as it freezes -> 8 x more than when it goes from 1 - 0 degrees

22

Maximum density of H2O is at...?

4 degrees celsius

23

Specific functionality comes from which elements?

P, O, N, S

24

What are functional groups?

atoms other than C or H that give specific properties to molecules eg. polarity

25

Major functional groups are...?

hydroxyl (-OH); carbonyl (C=O); carboxyl (O-C=O); amino (-NH2); sulfhydryl/thiol (-SH); phosphate (-PO4)

26

The smaller units of polymers are typically combined with...?

dehydration synthesis (H20 gets released)

27

Common monosaccharides...?

glucose, fructose, ribose, deoxyribose

28

Glucose + fructose = ?

sucrose

29

Structural polysaccharide?

cellulose => chains of glucose molecules but with alternating bond configuration from starch

30

Structural carbohydrate?

chitin => makes up exoskeleton of arthropods & cell wall of fungi
polymer of glucose with amino side chain

31

Characteristics of lipids...?

mainly C & H
hydrophobic
energy storage (fats/oils)
water-proofing (waxes)
lipid bilayer
hormones (steroids)

32

Define the heat of fusion theory...

H2O gives up heat as it freezes -> 8 x more than when it goes from 1 - 0 degrees

33

Maximum density of H2O is at...?

4 degrees celsius

34

Specific functionality comes from which elements?

P, O, N, S

35

What are functional groups?

atoms other than C or H that give specific properties to molecules eg. polarity

36

Major functional groups are...?

hydroxyl (-OH); carbonyl (C=O); carboxyl (O-C=O); amino (-NH2); sulfhydryl/thiol (-SH); phosphate (-PO4)

37

The smaller units of polymers are typically combined with...?

dehydration synthesis (H20 gets released)

38

Common monosaccharides...?

glucose, fructose, ribose, deoxyribose

39

Name a sulfur-containing functional group

cysteine

40

Structural polysaccharide?

cellulose => chains of glucose molecules but with alternating bond configuration from starch

41

Nucleotides serve which other roles?

energy carriers (ATP)
electron carriers (NAD+, FAD, NADP+)

42

Characteristics of lipids...?

mainly C & H
hydrophobic
energy storage (fats/oils)
water-proofing (waxes)
lipid bilayer
hormones (steroids)

43

T or F - Oils, fats & waxes may posses carbon rings

false - they contain only C,H & O, have 1 or more FA side chains, and only have linear chains of atoms (NO RINGS)

44

Phospholipids contain...?

- Polar head (functional group & phosphate group)
- glycerol backbone
- fatty acid (FA) tails

45

Steroids are...?

lipids containing 4 fused rings & are mainly hormones eg. cholesterol, oestrogen, testosterone

46

Amino acids contain...?

amino group
variable group
carboxylic acid group
hydrogen

47

Amino acids join together to form proteins with which bond?

peptide bonds

48

Name 2 hydrophilic functional groups

glutamic acid
aspartic acid

49

Name 2 hydrophobic functional groups

phenylalanine
leucine

50

Name a sulfur-containing functional group

cysteine

51

Polymers of nucleotides are called...?

nucleic acids

52

Nucleotides serve which other roles?

energy carriers (ATP)
electron carriers (NAD+, FAD, NADP+)

53

Define selectively permeable

a membrane that allows certain molecules to pass thru it by diffusion & occasionally facilitated diffusion

54

Different forms of passive movement across membranes...?

diffusion/osmosis
facilitated diffusion

55

Different forms of active movement across membranes...?

active transport
co-transport
membrane manipulations

56

Membranes are permeable to these molecules...

dissolved gases
small uncharged polar molecules
ethanol

57

Membranes are not very permeable to these molecules...

polar molecules
charged molecules
macromolecules

58

Membranes are semi-permeable to these molecules...

water
urea

59

Define osmosis

movement of water across a differentially permeable membrane

60

Define isotonic

same concentration

61

Define hypertonic

greater concentration

62

Define hypotonic

lesser concentration

63

Define equilibrium

concentration of diffusing substances in two compartments are equal

64

Define selectively permeable

a membrane that allows certain molecules to pass thru it by diffusion & occasionally facilitated diffusion

65

Example of simple diffusion?

O2 thru phospholipid bilayer

66

Eg's of facilitated diffusion?

Cl- thru channel proteins
glucose thru carrier proteins

67

Eg of osmosis?

H2O osmosis thru aquaporins or phospholipid bilayer

68

2 main features of active transport...?

movement against concentration gradient
requires energy

69

Where would active transport be used...?

when a cell is fighting a gradient
eg. bringing nutrients into a cell
waste excretion
pumping ions across membrane

70

2 types of endocytosis...

pinocytosis - fluids
phagocytosis - particles

71

List the 4 cell connections...

desmosomes
tight junctions
gap junctions
plasmodesmata

72

What are desmosomes?

cell connection in SI held together by protein filaments

73

What are tight junctions?

cell connections in urinary bladder sealed together by proteins

74

What are gap junctions?

cell connections in the liver connecting adjacent cells by channel proteins

75

What are plasmodesmata?

cell connections in plant roots connected by membrane-lined channels