Topic 4b - Inheritance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 4b - Inheritance Deck (23):
1

What is Lamarckianism?

changes in condition are passed onto offspring

2

Years Mendel conducted pea experiments?

1856-1863

3

Which traits did Mendel choose to work with?

seed shape
seed colour
flower colour
pod shape
pod colour
flower/seed position
stem length

4

Define progeny...

offspring of mating/breeding

5

Define F1 generation...

First filial generation (cross between 2 pure breeding strains)

6

Define F2 generation...

2nd filial generation (progeny of crosses of F1 progeny)

7

Define dominant...

trait that masks the presence of a recessive trait

8

Define recessive...

a variant expressed only when a dominant trait is absent

9

Define the Law of Segregation...

Individuals carry 2 alleles of each gene controlling inherited traits. Alleles partition themselves when gametes form so that each gamete has only one pair of alleles. eg. Gg -> 1G & 1g = 1 'green' allele in one gamete & 1 'yellow' allele in the other gamete

10

Define genotype...

combination of alleles in an organism

11

Define phenotype...

the physical/observable characteristic

12

What does a punnett square predict?

genotypic & phenotypic frequencies

13

Define pleiotropy...

a single gene controls more than one phenotypic trait

14

Define incomplete dominance...

phenotype of a heterozygous individual is intermediate between that of each homozygote eg. Red snapdragon + white snapdragon = pink snapdragon

15

Incomplete dominance ratio?

1 : 2 : 1

16

An example of co-dominance...

blood type in humans

17

Which blood types are most to least common...?

A & B (most common), then AB, then O

18

4 types of cross...

monohybrid
dihybrid
testcross
backcross

19

In dihybrid crosses, F1 generation shows what? F2 generation?

F1 - all dominant traits
F2 - combination of dominant & recessive traits

20

Typical dihybrid cross F2 ratio...?

9:3:3:1

21

Define the law of independent assortment...

Traits don't affect each other - alleles of one trait assort into gametes independently of alleles of another gene controlling a different trait

22

Sex-linked traits controlled by...?

sex chromosomes (X or Y)

23

T or F - environment has no effect on phenotype

false - environment can affect genotype & phenotype
eg. alkaline pH = pink flower, acidic pH = blue flower