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Flashcards in Biochem 2 USMLE Deck (196):
1

underproduction of heme causes this type of anemia

microcytic hypochromic

2

accumulations of heme intermediates causes thius

porphyrias

3

this type of porphyria inhibits ferrochelatase and ALA dehydrase. Cooproporphyrin and ALA accumulate in the urine

lead poisoning

4

this type of porphyria results from a deficiency in uroporphyrinogen I synthetase. Porphobilogen and delta-ALA accumulate in urine

Acute intermittent porphyria

5

this type of porphyria results from a deficiency in uropophyrinogen decarboxylase. Uroporphyrin accumulates in urine (tea-colored). results in photosensitivity

Porphyria cutanea tardia

6

symptoms of porphyrias (5 Ps)

Painful abdomen
Pink urine
Polyneuropathy
Psychological disturbances
Precipitated by drugs

7

heme is scavenged from RBCs and ____ is reused

Fe++

8

heme ->_____->bilirubin

biliverdin

9

bilirubin is toxic to this organ system

CNS

10

bili is transported by this protein

albumin

11

bili is removed from the blood by this organ

liver

12

bili is conjugated with this ____

glucuronate

13

bili is excreted in this supstance

bile

14

where in the body is bili processed into its excreted form

intestine

15

some ________, an intestinal intermediate, is reabsorbed into blood and excreted as urobilin into urin

urobilinogen

16

this poison has a 200x greater affinity than O2 for HGB

CO

17

hemoglobin is composed of 4 polypeptide subunits. describe them

2 alpha
2 beta

18

HGB exists in 2 forms what are they

T (taut) low affinity for O2
R (relaxed) high affinity for O2 (300x)

19

Hgb exibits _______ cooperativity and ________ allostery (accounts for the sigmoid-shaped O2 dissociation curve for hgb), unlike myoglobin

positive
negative

20

name the things that favor the relaxed form of hgb (shifting dissociation curve to the right, leading to O2 unloading)

increased Cl-,H+,CO2,2,3BPG, hight temp.

mneu: when you're relaxed, you do your job better (carry O2)

21

what are the fetal hgb subunits

2alpha
2gamma

22

fetal hgb has a lower affinity for _____ than adult hgb and thus has a higher affinity for O2

2,3-BPG

23

Iron in hgb is in a _____ state (ferrous, Fe++)

reduced

24

this is an oxidized form of hgb (ferric, Fe++) that does not bind O2 as readily but has increased affinity for CN-.

methemoglobin

25

administer this in cyanide poisoning to oxidize hgb to methemoglobin form

nitrites

26

tx toxic levels of METHemoglobin with -----

METHylene blue

27

CO2 is transported in the blood by binding to

amino acids in the globin chain (at N terminus) but not to heme

28

CO2 binding favors this form of hgb (and thus promotes O2 unloading)

taut

29

CO2 must be transported from tissue to lungs, the reverse of O2, and this occurs primarily in what form

bicarbinate

30

this is a molecular biology laboratory procedure that is used to synthesize many copies of a desired fragment of DNA

polymerase chain reaction (PCR

31

steps of PCR

1) DNA is denatured by heating to generate 2 separate strands
2)during cooling, excess premade DNA primers anneal to a specific sequence on each strand to be amplified
3) heat-stable DNA polymerase replicates the DNA sequence following each primer

These steps are repeated multiple times for DNA sequence aplification

32

In this molecular biology technique, a DNA sample is electrophoresed on a gel and then transferred to a filter. The filter is then soaked in a denaturant and subsequently exposed to a labeled DNA probe that recognizes and anneals to its complementary strand. The resulting double stranded labeled piece of DNA is visualized when the filter is exposed to film.

southern blot

SNoW DRoP:
Southern=DNA
Northern=RNA
Western=Protein

33

this molecular biology technique, is a similar technique, except that it involves radioactive DNA probe binding to sample RNA

northern blot

SNoW DRoP:
Southern=DNA
Northern=RNA
Western=Protein

34

In this molecular biology technique, sample protein is separated via gel electrophoresis and transferred to a filter. Labeled antibody is used to bind to relevant PROTEIN

Western drop

SNoW DRoP:
Southern=DNA
Northern=RNA
Western=Protein

35

in this method of testing, a pts blood sample is probed with either:
1)test Ag (coupled to color-generating enzyme)-to see if immune system recognizes it; or
2) Test Ab (coupled to color generating enzyme) to see if certain Ag is present

If the target subsance is present in the sample, the test solution will have an intense color reaction, indicating a positive test result.

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

36

ELISA is used in many labs to determine whether a particular ___(e.g., anti-HIV) is present in a pts blood sample. Both the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA approach 100% but both false positive and false negative results do occur

Antibody

37

define the genetic term VARIABLE EXPRESSION

nature and severity of the phenotype varies from 1 individual to another

38

define the genetic term INCOMPLETE PENETRANCE

Not all individuals with a mutant genotype show the mutant phenotype

39

define the genetic term PLEIOTROPY

1 gene has >1 effect on an individual's phenotype

40

define the genetic term IMPRINTING

differences in phenotype depend on whether the mutationis of maternal or paternal origin (e.g., AngelMan's syndrome [Maternal], Prader-Willi syndrome [Paternal]

41

define the genetic term ANTICIPATION

Severity of dz worsens or age onset of dz is earlier in succeeding generations (e.g., Huntington's dz)

42

define the genetic term LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY

If a pt inherits or develops a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, the complimentary allele must be deleted/mutated before CA develops. This is not true of oncogenes

43

define the genetic term DOMINANT NEGATIVE MUTATION

exerts a DOMINANT EFFECT. A heterozygote produces a nonfxnl altered protein that also prevents the normal gene product from funcioning

44

define the genetic term LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM

Tendency for certain alleles at 2 linked loci to occur together more often than expected by chance. Measured in a population, not in a family, and often varies in different populations

45

define the genetic term MOSAICISM

occurs when cells in the body have different genetic makeup (e.g. lyonization--random X inactivation in females)

46

define the genetic term LOCUS HETEROGEITY

Mutations at different loci can produce the same phenotype (e.g., albinism

47

Hardy-Weinberg law assumes (4)

1) there is no mutation occurring at the locus
2) there is no selection for any of the genotypes at the locus
3) Mating is completely random
4) There is no migration into or out of the population

48

If a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. p and q are separate allele. 2pq=heterozygote prevalence.

allele prevalence is?
disease prevalence is?

p+q=1
p2 + 2pq +q2 =1

49

this mode of inheritance looks like this [p.107]







Often due to defects in sxl genes. Many generations, both male and female, affected. It is often pleiotropic and, in many cases, present clinically after puberty. Family hx is crucial to dx

Autosomal dominant

50

this mode of inheritance looks like this [p.107]







25% of offspring from 2 carrier parents are affected. Often due to enzyme deficiencies. Usually seen in only 1 generation. Commonly more severe. Pts often present in childhood.

autosomal recessive

51

this mode of inheritance looks like this [p.107]







Sons of heterozygous mothers have a 50% chance of being affected. No male-to-male transmission. Commonly more severe in males. Heterozygous females may be effected.

X linked recessive

52

this mode of inheritance looks like this [p.107]







transmitted through both parents. Either male or female offspring of the affected mother may be affected, while ALL female offspring of the affected father are diseased. e.g., Hypophosphatemic rickets.

X linked dominant

53

this mode of inheritance looks like this [p.107]







transmitted only through mother. All offspring of affected females may show signs of dz. e.g., Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

mitochondrial inheritance

54

This autosomal dominant dz, is ALWAYS BILATERAL, there is a massive enlargement of kidneys due to multiple large cysts. Pts present with pain, hematuria, hyperension, progressive renal failure. 90% of cases are due to mutation in APKD1 (chromosome 16). Associated w/ polycystic liver dz, berry aneurysms, mitral valve prolapse. Juvenile form is recessive

Adult Polycystic Kidney Dz

55

This autosomal dominant dz, is characterized by elevated LDL owing to defective or absent LDL receptor. Heterozygotes (1:1500) have cholesterol~300mg/dl. Homozygotes (very raare) have cholesterol ~700+mg/dl, severe atherosclerotic dz early in life, and tendon xanthomas (classically in the Achilles tendon); MI may develop before age 20.

Familial hypercholesterolemia (hyperlipidemia type IIA)

56

This fibrillin gene mutation results in connective tissue disorders. It results in skeletal abnormalities--tall with long extremities (arachnodactylyl), hyperextensive joints, and long, tapering fingers and toes.
CV--cystic medial necrosis of aorta leading to aortic incompetence and dissecting aortic aneurysms. Floppy mitral valve.
Ocular-subluxation of lenses

Marfan's syndrome

57

This autosomal dominant dz, is characterized by cafe-au-lait spots, neural tumors, Lisch nodules (pigmented iris hamartomas). Also marked by skeletal d/o (e.g., scoliosis), pheochromocytoma, and increased tumor suceptibility. On long arm of chromosome 17

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen's dz)

mneu: chrom 17-17 letters in von Recklinghausen

58

This autosomal dominant dz, is characterized by bilateral acoustic neuroma, optic pathway gliomas, juvenile cataracts.

Neurofibromatosis type 2

59

Neurofibromatosis type 2 is on this gene on this chromosome

NF2 gene on chrom 22

60

This autosomal dominant dz, is characterized by facial lesions (adenoma sebaceum), hypopigmented "ash leaf spots" on skin, cortical and retinal hamartomas, seizures, mental retardation, renal cysts, cardiac rhabdomyomas. Incomplete penetrance, variable presentration.

Tuberous sclerosis

61

This autosomal dominant dz, is characterized by hemangioblastomas of retina/cerebellum/medulla; about half of affected individuals develop multiple bilateral renal cell carcinomas and other tumors.

Von Hippel-Lindau dz

62

Von Hippel-Lindau dz is associated with deletion of this gene on this chromosome

VHL gene (tumor suppressor) on chromosome 3 (3p)

mneu: VHL=3 words=chrom 3

63

This autosomal dominant dz, is characterized by depression, progressive dementia, choreiform movements, caudate atrophy and decreased levels of GABA and ACH in the brain. Symptoms manifest in affected individuals between the ages of 20 and 20.

Huntington's dz

64

Huntington's dz gene is located on this chromosome. It is a _____ repeat d/o

chrom 4
triplet repeat

mneu: "Hunting 4 food"

65

This autosomal dominant dz, is characterized by the colon becoming covered with adenomatous polyps after puberty. Progresses to cancer unless resected.

familial adenomatous polyposis

66

familial adenomatous polyposis is a deletion of this chromosome

5

mneu: 5 letters in "polyp"

67

This autosomal dominant dz, is characterized by spheroid erythrocytes; hemolytic anemia; increased MCHC. Splenectomy is curative

hereditary spherocytosis

68

This autosomal dominant dz, is characterized by autosomal-dominant cell-signaling defect of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 3. Results in dwarfism; short limbs; but head and trunk are normal size

achondroplasia

69

name 5 autosomal-recessive dzs

CF, albinism, alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency, PKU, thalassemias, sickle cell anemia, glycogen storage dz, mucopolysaccharidosis (except Hunter's), sphingolipidosies (except Fabry's), infant polycystic kidney dz, hemochromatosis

70

CF has this inheratance

autosomal recessive

71

what is the gene and chromosome of CF

CFTR on chromosome 7

72

what is the defective channel in CF that results in secretion of abnormally thick mucus that plugs lungs, pancreas, and liver.

Cl-

73

the recurrent pulmonary infections in CF are often due to these 2 bugs

pseudomonas and S. aureus.

74

this CF complication results in malabsorption and steatorrhea

pancreatic insufficiency

75

CF can cause this in this in newborns

meconium ileus

76

how do you dx CF

incresed concentration of Cl-ions in a sweat test.

77

CF can cause this in males due to absent vas deference

infertility

78

these vitamen deficiencies can be present in CF. It may present as failure to thrive in infancy

ADEk

79

CF is the most common lethal genetic dz in this racial group

caucasians

80

in CF this tx will loosen mucous plugs

N-acetylcystein

81

Give 5 X-linked recessive disorders

fragile X, duchenne's muscular dystorphy, hemophilia A & B, Fabry's, G6PD deficiency, Hunter's syndrome, ocular albinism, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Bruton's agammaglobinemia, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

82

T or F. Female carriers of X-linked recessive d/o are rarely affected because of random inactivation of X chromosomes in each cell

T

83

In this X-linked d/o that begins before 5 y/o, weakness begins in the pelvic girdle muscles and progresses superiorly. YOu may see pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles due to fibrofatty replacement of muscle; cardiac myopathy. Often times kids will use the Gower's manuver, requiring assistance of the upper extremities to stand up, is characteristic (indicates proximal lower limb weakness)

Duchenne's muscular deficiency

84

Duchenne's muscular deficiency is an X linked d/o that results from a frame-shift mutation that deletes this gene which leads to accelerated mm breakdwon.

dystrophin gene

mneu: Duchenne's = Deleted Dystrophin

85

In this d/o the mutation of the dystrophin gene is less sever than Duchenne's

Becker's

86

fragile x syndrome is an x-linked defect affecting the methylation and expression of the ____ gene

FMR1

87

how common is fragile X

commmon
2nd most common cause of mental retardation
most common cause is down sydnrome

88

give some PE findings of fragile X

macro-orchidism (enlarged testes), long face w/ large jaw, large everted ears, and autism

mneu: Fragile X=eXtra-large testes, jaw, ears

89

fragile X syndrome is a ______ repeat d/o (CGC)n that may show genetic anticipation (germlike expansion in females).

triplet

90

Give 3 trinucleotide repeat expansion dz

HUNTINGton's dz, MYotonic dystrophy, FRIEDreich's ataxia, frafile X syndrome.

mneu: TRY (trinucleotide) HUNTING for MY FRIED eggs (X)

91

trinucleotide repeat expansion dz may show this which refers to increased disease severity and age of severity in successive generations

anticipation

92

Give 5 common congenital malformations

1) heart defects
2) hypospadias
3) cleft lip
4) congenital hip dislocation
5) spina bifida
6) Anencephaly
7) Pyloric stenosis

93

this common congenital malformation is associated with projectile vomiting

pyloric stenosis

94

give 3 autosomal trisomies

down syndrome
edwards' syndrome
patau's syndrome

95

give the genetics of Down syndrome

trisomy 21

96

how common is down syndrome

most common chromosomal d/o and cause of congenital mental retardation

97

give some physical exam findings of down syndrome

mental retardation, flat facial profile, prominant epicathal folds, simian crease, duodenal atresia, congenital heart dz (most common malformation is septum primum-type ASD due to endocardial cushion defects).

98

what dzs are people w/ down syndrome at risk for as they get older

alzheimer's dz (>35 y/o)
increase risk of ALL

99

give tips off in utero that a baby may be trisomy 21

decreased levels of alpha fetoprotein, inceased levels of beta hCG, increased nuchal translucency

100

95% of cases of trisomy 21 are due to this type of nondisjxn of homologous chromosomes

meiotic

4% of cases due to robertsonian translocation
1% due to Down mosaicism (no maternal association)

101

What is the risk of down syndrome in women < 20 y/o?
>45 y/o

1:1500
1:25

102

children with this autosomal trisomy have severe mental retardation, rocker bottom feet, low-set ears, micrognathia (small jaw), congenital heart dz, clenched hands, prominent occiput. Death usually occcurs within 1 year of birth

Edwards' syndrome
(trisomy 18)
1:8000

mneu: Election age (18)

103

children with this autosomal trisomy have severe mental retardation, microphthalmia, microcephaly, cleft lip/palate, abnormal forebrain sxs, polydactyly, congenital heart dz. Death usually occurs w/in 1 year of birth

Patau's syndrome
(trisomy 13)
1:6000

mneu: Pubety (13)

104

findings of this d/o include microcephaly, severe mental retardation, high ptiched crying/mewing, epicanthal folds, cardiac abnormalities

what is the congenital deletion

short arm of chromosome 5
(46,XX or XY, 5p)

Cri-du-chat syndorme

105

Cleft palate, Abnormal facies, Thymic aplasia (T-cel deficiency), Cardiac defects, Hypocalcemia (secondary to parathyroid aplaisia)

22q11

CATCH-22

106

22q11 has variable presentation as these 2 syndromes

DiGeorge Sydnrome (thymic, parathyroid, and cardiac defects) or velocardiofacial syndrome (palate, facial, and cardiac defects)

107

what are the fat soluble vitamens

ADEK

108

this fat soluble vitamen is key in vision

A

109

this fat soluble vitamen is key for bone calcification and Ca+ homeostasis

D

110

this fat soluble vitamen is key in clotting

K

111

this fat soluble vitamen is a key antioxident

E

112

thiamine

B1

113

riboflavin

B2

114

niacin

B3

115

this water soluble viatamen is key for blood and neural development

folate

116

this fat soluble vitamen is key for the CNS and blood

B12 (cobalamin)

117

pyridoxine/Pyridoxal/Pyridoxamine

B6

118

the absorption of fat soluble vitamens is dependent on these 2 organs

gut(ilium) and pancreas

119

is toxicity more common in water soluble or fat soluble vitamens

fat

120

malabsorption syndromes (steatorrhea), such as cystic fibrosis and sprue, or mineral oil intake can cause these vitamin deficiencies

fat

121

Water soluble vitamens all wash out easily from the body except this vitamen that is stored in the liver

B12

122

B1

thiamine: TTP

123

B2

riboflavin: FAD, FMN

124

B3

niacin: NAD+

125

B5

Pantothenate: CoA

126

B12

cobalamin

127

C

ascorbic acid

128

pt presents with dermatitis, glossitis, and diarrhea. What vit deficiencies

B complex

129

this vitamen is a constituent of visual pigments (retinal)

A

mneu: RETINOL is vitamen A, so think RETIN-A (used topically for wrinkles and acne)

130

give 3 symptoms of vit A deficiency

night blindness, dry skin, impared immune response

131

give 3 symptoms of vit A excess

arthralgias, fatigue, headaches, skin changes, sore throat, alopecia

132

this vitamen fxs in thiamine pyrophosphate, a cofactor for oxidative carboxylation of alpha-keto acids (pyruvate, alpha ketogluterate) and a cofactor for transketolase in the HMP shunt

vitamen B1 (thiamine)

133

give 2 conditions that can result from vit B1 (thiamine) deficiency

Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

mneu: Ber1Ber1

134

this type of beriberi is characterized by polyneuritis and mm wasting

dry

135

this type of beriberi is characterized by high-output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy, edema

Wet

136

this vitamen is a cofactor in oxidation and reduction (e.g., FADH2)

vitamen B2 (riboflavin)

137

give a few signs of vit B2 (riboflavin) deficiency

angular stomatitis, cheilosis, corneal vasculation

mneu: the 2 C's

138

FAD & FMN are derived from this vitamen

riboFlavin

139

B2=___ATP

2

140

this vitamen is a constituent of NAD+, NADP+ (used in redox reactions). Derived from tryptophan using vit B6

vitamen B3 (niacin)

141

give the 3 Ds of Pellagra

diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia (also beefy glossitis)

142

deficiency of vit B3 (niacin can be caused by hartnup dz. Why?

decreased tryptophan absorption

143

deficiency of vit B3 (niacin can be caused by malignant carcinoid syndrome. Why?

increased tryptophan metabolism

144

deficiency of vit B3 (niacin can be caused by INH. Why

decrease vit B6

145

NAD is derived from _______

Niacin

146

B3=__ATP

3

147

this vitamne fxs as a constituent of CoaA (a cofactor for acyl transfors) and component of fatty acid synthase.

vitamen B5 (pantothenate)

mneu: Pantothen-A is in CoA

148

give some signs of vit B5 deficiencies

dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency

149

this vitamen fxs converted to pyridoxal pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor used in transamination (e.g., ALT & AST), decarboxylation, and heme synthesis

vitamen B6 (pyridoxine)

150

give signs of vit B6 (pyridoxine)

convulsions, hyperirritability (deficiency inducible by INH and oral contraceptives), peripheral neuropathy.

151

this vitamen is a cofactor for homocysteine methylation (transfers CH3 groups as methylcobalamin) and methylmalonyl-CoA handling.

vitamin B12 (cobalamin)

152

vitamen B12 is stored primarily in this organ

liver

153

vitamme B12 is synthesized only by microorganisms and is found only in this type of food

animal products.

154

vitamen B12 is usually caused by malabsorption-- give a few examples

sprue, enteritis, Diphyllobothrium latum

155

vitamen B12 can be caused by pernicious anemia which is caused by a lack of this

intrinsic factor

156

vit B12 can be caused by absense of terminal ileum for example in this GI dz

chron's dz

157

this test is used to detect vit B12

schillng test

158

abnormal myelin is seen in B12 deficiency, possibly due to decreased_______ or increased ________ (from metabolism of accumulated methylmalonyl-CoA)

methionine
methylmalonic acid

159

this is the most common vitamen deficiency in the US

folic acid

160

this vit fxs in coenzyme (tetrahydrofolate) for 1 carbon transfer, involved in methylation reactions. It is important for synthesis of nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA

folic acid

161

give some signs and symptoms of folic acid deficiencies

macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia (often no neuro symptoms, as opposed to vitB12

162

what kind of foods are high in folate

green leafy veggies

mneu: FOLate from FOLiage

163

supliment folic acid when

early pregnancy-reduces neural tube defects

164

PABA is the folic acid precursor in bacteria. these antimicrobials work because they are PABA analogs

sulfa drugs and dapsone

165

this vitamen is a cofactor for carboxylations:
1) Pyruvate ->oxaloacetate
2) Acetyl-CoA ->malonyl-CoA
3) Proprionyl-CoA ->methhylmalonyl CoA

biotin

166

biotin deficiency can be caused by using these drugs or eating these

antibiotics
raw eggs

mneu: AVIDin in egg whites AVIDly binds biotin

167

give some symptoms of biotin deficiency

dermatitis, enteritis

168

give some signs of vit C deficiency

scurvy--swollen gumbs, bruising, anemia, poor wound healing

169

vit C is necessary for hydroxylation of _____ and _____ in collagen synthesis

proline
lysine

mneu: vit C Cross-links collagen. British sailors carried limes to prevent scury (origin of word "limey"

170

vit C facilitates absorption of this nutrient

Fe++
(keeps it in a reduced state-more absorpable)

171

vit C is necassary as a cofactor for dopimine in conversion to this neurotransmitter

NE

172

this is the form of vit D found in milk

D2 (ergocalciferol)

173

this is the form of vit D formed in sun-exposed skin

D3 (cholecalciferol)

174

this is the storage form of vit D

25-OHD3

175

this is the active form of vit D

25-(OH)2D3

176

give some signs of vit D deficiency

rickets in children (bending bones), osteomalacia in adults (soft bones) and hypocalcemic tetany

177

what is the fx of vit D

increase intestinal absorption of Ca++ & phosphate

178

what are some signs of vit D excess

hypercalcemia, loss of appetite, stupor.

179

what dz might you see excess vit D in

sarcoidosis
(dz where epitheliod macrophages convert vitD into its active form

180

vit E deficincy results in a fragility of these blood cells

erythrocytes

mneu: vit E is for Erythrocytes

181

what is the fx of vit E

it is an antioxidant that protects erythrocytes from hemolysis

182

this vitamen funcitons to catalyze gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on various proteins concerned with blood clotting.

vit K

mneu: K is for Koagulation

183

How is vit K synthesized. What drugs can cause vitK deficiency

intestinal flora
prolonged use of broad spectrum antibiotics

184

vit K deficiency can result in this problem in neonates (what would PT, PTT, & bleeding time be)

neonatal hemorrhage w/ increased PT and increased aPTT but normal bleeding time

185

what are the vit K dependent clotting factors

II,VII,IX,X and protein C & S

186

this drug is a vitK antagonist

Warfarin

187

give a few signs of zinc deficiency

delayed wound healing, hypogonadism, decreased axillary, facial, and pubic hair. It may predispose to alcoholic cirrhosis.

188

this enzyme catalyzes EtOh to acetaldehyde and reduces NAD+ to NADH

alcohol dehydrogenase

189

this enzyme catalyzes acetaldehyde to Acetate and reduces NAD+ to NADH

acetaldehyde dehydrogenase

190

what is the limiting reagent in etoh metabolism

NAD+

191

what is the kinetics of alcohol dehydrogenase

zero order

192

how does disulfram (antabuse)work.

inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase--acetaldehyde accumulates contributing to hangover symptoms

193

describe ethanol hypoglycemia

ethanol metabolism increases NADH/NAD+ ratio in the liver, causing diversion of pyruvate to lactate and OAA to malate, thereby inhibiting gluconeogenesis and leading to hypoglycemia.

194

altered NADH/NAD+ ratio in the liver is responsible for this change seen in chronic alchololics

hepatic fatty change (hepatocellular steatosis)-shunting away from glycolysis and toward fatty acid synthesis

195

this is protein malnutrition resulting in skin lesions, edema, liver malfxn (fatty change). Clinical picture is a small child w/ a swollen belly

kwashiorkor

mneu: resutls from a protein deficient MEAL
Malabsorption
Edema
Anemia
Liver (fatty

196

this results from protein-calorie malnutrition resulting in tissue wasting

marasmus