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Flashcards in Micro 3 USMLE Deck (173):
1

You can see tinea as mold hyphae with this type of prep. tineas are not dimorphic.

KOH prep

2

this opportunistic fungal infxn causes thrush in immunocompromized pts (neonates, taking steroids, dbts, AIDS), vulvovaginitis (pts with high pH, dbts, using AB), and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

candida albicans

3

this opportunistic fungal infxn causes allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, lung gavity aspergilloma ("fungus ball"), invasive aspergillosis. It's MOLD has septate hyphae that branch at a V-shaped (45*) angle. Not dimorphic

Aspergillus fumigatus

4

this opportunistic fungal infxn causes meningitis and systemic dz. It is a heavily encapsulated YEAST. It is not dimorphic. It is found in soil, pigeon droppings. Culture it on Sabouraud's agar and stain with India ink. Latex agglutination test detects polysaccaride capusular Ag.

Cryptococcus neoformans

5

this opportunistic fungal infxn causes systemic dz. MOLD with irregular nonseptate hyphae branching at wide angles (>90*). Dz strikes mostly ketoacidotic diabetics and leukemic pts. Fungi also proliferate in the walls of blood vessels and cuases infaction of distal tissue. Can cause Rhinocerebral and frontal lobe abscesses.

Mucor & Rhizopus spp.

6

Oportunic Fungal Infxn:
pseudohyphae + buddign yeasts. Germ tubes at 37*C [image p. 147]

candida

7

Oportunic Fungal Infxn:

45* angle branching septate hyphae. Rare fruiting bodies [image p. 147]

aspergillus

8

Oportunic Fungal Infxn:

5-10um yeast with wide capsular halo. Narrow based unequal buddign [image p. 147]

cryptococcus

9

Oportunic Fungal Infxn:

Irregular broad (empty looking) nonseptate hyphae, wide-angle branchign[image p. 147]

Mucor

10

Yeast that is inhaled and causes diffuse interstitial pnneumonia in AIDS pts

pneumocystis carinii

11

Dx of P. Carinii

lung bx of lavage. I.D. w/ silver stain.

12

Tx of P. Carinia

TMP-SMX
(prophylaxis when CD4 drops below 200 cells/ml in HIV pts)

13

dimorphic fungus that lives on vegetation often traumatically introduced into the skin, typically by a thorn ("rose gardener's dz), causes local pustule or ulcer with nodules along draining lymphatics (ascending lymphangitis). Causes little systemic illness. Cigar shaped budding yeast visible in pus.

sporothrix schenkii

14

tx sporothrix schenkii w/

iatraconazole or potassium iodide.

15

key words: yeast forms, unequal budding

sporothrix schenkii

16

causes bloody diarrhea, dysentary, liver abscess, RUQ pain. Is transmitted via cysts in the water. dx by trophosoits or cysts in stool.

entamoeba histolytica

17

tx of entamoeba histolytica

metronidazole & iodoquinol

18

Causes bloating, flatulence, foul-smelling diarrhea. Transmitted via cysts in water. Dx by trophozoitese or cysts in stool.

Giardia lamblia

19

tx of Giardia lamblia

metronidazole

20

Causes mild watery diarrhea or severe diarrhea in AIDS. Transmitted via cysts in water. Dx by cysts on acid fast stain. No tx

cryptosporidium

21

causes brain abscesses in HIV and birth defects in neonates. Transmitted by cysts in meat or cat feces. Dx is by seriology or bx.

toxoplasma

22

Tx of toxoplama

Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine

23

Causes malaria: cyclic fever, headache, anemia splenomegaly. Transmitted by Mosquito. Dx is by blood smear.

Plasmodium (vivax, ovale, malariae, faciparum.

24

Most severe malaria (cerebral) is from infection with

P. falciparum

25

tx of malaria

Chloroquine

26

Causes vaginitis: foul-smelling greenish discharge with itching and birning. Sexual transmission. Dx via trophozoites on wet mount

Trichomonas Vaginalis

27

Tx of Trichomonas Vaginalis

metronidazole

28

Causes Chagas' dz (dialated cardiomyopathy, megacolon, megaesophagus). Transmitted via the reduviid bug. Dx by blood smear.

Trypanosoma cruzi

29

Tx of Trypanosoma cruzi

Nifurimox

30

Causes african sleeping sickness. transmitted by the tsetse fly. dx via blood smear.

trypanosoma (T. gambiense, T. rhodensiense)

31

Tx of trypanosoma

suramin for blood borne dx or melarsoprol for CNS penetration

32

causes visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) transmitted by the sandfly. dx by macrophages containing amastigotes.

Leishmania donovani

33

tx of Leishmania donovani

sodium stibogluconate

34

causes babesiosis: fever and anemia. transmitted by Ixodes tick. Dx by blood smear, shows no RBC pigment, appears as "maltese cross"

babesia

35

babesia is tx with

quinine, clindamycin

36

cause rapidly fatall meningoencephalitis. transmitted by swimming in freshwater lakes (enters via cribiform plate) dx by amebas in spinal fluid. No tx.

Naegleria

37

helminths are ______

cestodes (tapeworms) & trematodes (flukes) & Nematodes (roundworms)

38

cestodes are _______

tapeworms

39

trematodes are ______

flukes

40

this cestodode is transmitted by eating undercooked pork, larvae can cause mass lesions in the brain or disseminated dz (cystercercosis)

taenia solium

41

tx for taenia solium

praziquantel/niclosamide; albendazole for cistercercosis

42

this cestode is transmitted by eggs in dog feces which when ingested can cause cysts in the liver and cause anaphylaxis if antigens are released form cysts

Echinococcus granulosus

43

tx for Echinococcus granulosus

albendazole

44

this trematode uses snails as a host. Cercariae penetrate the skin of humans and cause granulomas, fibrosis, and inflammation of the spleen and liver

schistosoma

45

tx of schistosoma

praziquantel

46

this trematode is transmitted via undercooked fish. It causes inflammation of the biliary tract

clonorchis sinesis

47

this trematode is transmitted via undercooked crab meat. It causes inflammation and secondary bacterial infectgion of the lung.

Paragoniimus westermani

48

tx of Paragoniimus westermani

praziquantel

49

tx of trematodes (flukes) and many Cestodes (tapeworms)

Praziquantel

50

Nematodes are ________

roundworms

51

this nematodes larvae penetrates the skin of the feet causing an intestinal infection that can cause anemia

ancylostoma duodenale (hookworm)

52

tx of ancylostoma duodenale

mebendazole/pyrantel pamoate

53

this nematode that causes intestinal infection has eggs that are visible in the feces

Ascaris lumbricoides (giant roundworm)

54

Tx of Ascaris lumbricoides (giant roundworm)

mebendazole/pyrantel pamoate

55

this nematode is transmitted by food contaminated with eggs. It causes an intestinal infection and symptoms include anal pruritis

enterobius vermicularis

56

tx of enterobius vermicularis

mebendazole/pyrantel pamoate

57

this nematode spreads when larvae in the soil penetrate the skin. It results in an intestinal infection

strongyloides stercoralis

58

tx of strongyloides stercoralis

Ivermectin/ thiabendazole

59

this nematode is transmitted in undercooked meat, usually pork and results in inflammation of the muscle and periorbital edema

trichinella spiralis

60

tx of trichinella spiralis

thiabendazole

61

this nematode is spread in drinking water. It results in skin inflammation and ulceration

dracunculus medinensis

62

tx of dracunculus medinensis

niridazole

63

this nematode is transmitted by the deer fly. It causes swelling in the skin and you can sometimes see worm crawling in the conjunctiva.

loa loa

64

tx of loa loa

diethylcarbamazine

65

this nematode is transmitted by femlae blackflies and causes river blindness

Onchocerca volvulus

66

tx of Onchocerca volvulus

ivermectin

67

this nematode is transmitted by food contaminated with eggs. It causes granulomas. If it occurs in retina it can lead to blindness. It also causes visceral larva migrans.

toxocara canis

68

tx of toxocara canis

diethylcarbamazine

69

this nematode is spread by the female mosquito. It causes blockage of the lymphatic vessels (elephantiasis)

Wuchereria bancrofti

70

tx of Wuchereria bancrofti

diethylcarbamazine

71

you find brain cysts & seizures. What is the organism?

taenia solium

72

you find liver cysts. What is the organism?

echinococcus granulosus

73

you find vit B12 deficiency. What is the organism?

diphyllobothrium latum

74

you find biliary tract dz. What is the organism?

clonorchis sinensis

75

you find hemoptysis. What is the organism?

paragonimus westermani

76

you find portal hypertension. What is the organism?

schistosoma mansoni

77

you find hematuria, bladder cancer. What is the organism?

Schistosoma haematobium

78

you find microcytic anemia. What is the organism?

Ancylostoma, Necator

79

you find perianal pritis. What is the organism?

enterobius

80

Tricky Ts:
What is chlamydia TRACHomatis

bacteria, STD

81

Tricky Ts:
What is TRICHomonas vaginalis

protozoan, STD

82

Tricky Ts:
What is TRICHinella spiralis

worm in undercooked meat

83

Tricky Ts:
What is TRYPanosoma

causes chagas dz or african sleeping sickness

84

Tricky Ts:
What is treponema

spirochete; causes syphilis or yaws

85

All DNA viruses except the parvoviridae are __DNA

ds

mneu: dsDNA like our cells except for parvovirus which is "part-of-a-virus" ->ssDNA

86

all DNA viral genomes are _____ except papoviruses and hepadnaviruses

linear

87

Naked nucleic acids of most dsDNA (except poxviruses and HBV) and (+) ssRNA (mRNA) viruses are _______

infectious

88

Naked nucleic acids of (-) strand ssRNA and dsRNA viruses are ________

non-infectious

89

Naked (nonenveloped RNA viruses include

Calcivirus, Picornavirus, & Reovirus

mneu: Naked CPR

90

viral nucleic acids with the same structure as the host nucleic acids ar infective alone; others require special enzymes (contained in intact viron) T or F

T

91

Generally, enveloped viruses aquire their envelopes from _______ when they exit from the cell.

plasma membrane

92

Herpesviruses aquire envelopes from _______

nuclear membrane

93

all viruses are _______ ( 1 copy DNA or RNA) except retroviruses, which are ________ (2 identical ssRNA molecules

haploid
diploid

94

all DNA viruses replicate in the ______ (except poxvirus)

nucleus

95

all RNA viruses replicate in the ________ (except influenza virus and retroviruses)

cytoplasm

96

DNA viruses are HHAPPPy viruses

hepadna, Herpes, Adeno, Pox, Parvo, Papova

97

most DNA viruses have these 4 things in common

1)ds (except Parvo)
2)linear (exept papova & Hepadna)
3)are icosahedral (except pox)
4)replicate in the nucleus (except Pox)

98

naked DNA viruses

Parvo, Adeno, Papova

mneu: you need to b e naked for a PAP smear

99

enveloped DNA viruses

Hepadna,Pox,Herpes

100

this virus is of the hepadnavirus family. It is enveloped and partially circular dsDNA virus. It is not a retrovirus but has a reverse transcriptase. It can cause acute or chronic hepatitis. There is a vaccine available.

HBV

101

this virus of the herpesvirus family is an enveloped virus w/ linear dsDNA. It can cause oral (and some genital) lesions) and keratoconjunctivitis.

HSV-1

102

this virus of the herpesvirus family is an enveloped virus w/ linear dsDNA. It can cause genital(and some oral ) lesions

HSV-2

103

this virus of the herpesvirus family is an enveloped virus w/ linear dsDNA. It can cause chickenpox, zoster, and shingles

VZV

104

this virus of the herpesvirus family is an enveloped virus w/ linear dsDNA. It can cause mononucleosis and Burkitt's lymphoma

EBV

105

this virus of the herpesvirus family is an enveloped virus w/ linear dsDNA. It can cause congenital defects and infection in immunosuppressed pts (esp. transplant recipients)

CMV

106

this virus of the herpesvirus family is an enveloped virus w/ linear dsDNA. It can cause Roseola (exanthem subitum

HHV-6

107

this virus of the herpesvirus family is an enveloped virus w/ linear dsDNA. It can cause Kaposi's sarcoma

HHV-8

108

this naked, linear, dsDNA causes febrile pharyngitis, pneumonia, and conjunctivitis.

adenovirus

109

This tiny naked ss linear DNA virus can cause aplatic crises in sickle cell dz, "slapped cheeks" rash, erythema infectiosum (fifth dz) & hydrops fetalis

parvovirus B19

110

this naked ds circular DNA virus of the papovavirus family can cause warts, CIN, and cervical cancer

HPV

111

this naked ds circular DNA virus of the papovavirus family can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in HIV

JC virus

112

this large enveloped dsDNA virus of the poxvirus family is a scare for germ warfare

small pox

113

this large enveloped dsDNA virus of the poxvirus family can cause "milkmaid's blisters"

cowpox (Vaccinia)

114

this large enveloped dsDNA virus of the poxvirus family can cause white pustulese with cottage cheesy like material innside

molluscum contageosum

115

this nonenveloped ss+ linear RNA virus of the picornavirus family with an icosahedral capsid can cause paralysis

poliovirus

116

salk/sabin polio vaccines the one with killed virus and no risk for infection

salk

117

this nonenveloped ss+ linear RNA virus of the picornavirus family with an icosahedral capsid can cause aseptic meningitis

echovirus

118

this nonenveloped ss+ linear RNA virus of the picornavirus family with an icosahedral capsid can cause the "common cold"

Rhinovirus

119

this nonenveloped ss+ linear RNA virus of the picornavirus family with an icosahedral capsid can cause aseptic meningitis, herpangia, febrile pharyngitis, hand, foot and mouth dz, myocarditis

Coxsackievirus

120

this nonenveloped ss+ linear RNA virus of the picornavirus family with an icosahedral capsid can cause acute viral hepatitis

HAV

121

this nonenveloped ss+ liniar RNA virus of the calcivirus family with an icosahedral capsid can cause heptatis

HEV

122

this nonenveloped ss+ liniar RNA virus of the calcivirus family with an icosahedral capsid can cause viral gastroenteritis

Norwalk virus

123

this is a nonenveloped ds liniar segmented RNA viruswith an double icosahedral capsid can cause colorado tick fever

reovirus

124

this nonenveloped ds liniar segmented RNA virus of the reovirus family with an double icosahedral capsid is the #1 cause of fatal diarrhea in children

rotavirus

125

this family of enveloped ss+ liniar RNA virus of with an icosahedral capsid contains HCV, Yellow fever, Dengue, St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile virus

Flavivirus

126

this family of enveloped ss+ liniar RNA virus of with an icosahedral capsid causes Rubella, eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis

Togavirus

127

this enveloped ss+ liniar RNA retrovirus with an icosahedral capsid uses reverese transcriptase and causes AIDS

HIV

128

this enveloped ss+ liniar RNA retrovirus with an icosahedral capsid uses reverese transcriptase and causes T-cell leukemia

HTLV

129

this member of the orthomyxoviruses is an enveloped ss- liniar segnebted RNA virus with an helical capsid and causes the "flu"

influenza virus

130

this member of the paramyxoviruses is an enveloped ss- linear nonsegmented RNA virus with an helical capsid causes croup in children (barking cough)

parainfluenza

131

this member of the paramyxoviruses is an enveloped ss- linear nonsegmented RNA virus with an helical capsid causes bronchilitis in babies

RSV

132

tx for RSV

ribavirin

133

this family contains enveloped ss- linear nonsegmented RNA virus with an helical capsid (includes parainfluenza, RSV, measels, mumps)

paramyxoviruses

134

this member of the rhabdoviruses is an enveloped ss- linear RNA virus with an helical capsid

rabies

135

this member of the filovirusesis an enveloped ss- linear RNA virus with an helical capsid causes hemorrhagic fever and is often fatal

Ebola/Marburg

136

this enveloped ss + linear RNA virus with an helical capsid causes the "common cold" and SARS

coronavirus

137

this member of the arenavirus family is an enveloped ss - circular RNA virus with an helical capsid and causes lymphocytic choriomeningitis

LCV

138

this member of the bunyavirus family is an enveloped ss - circular RNA virus with an helical capsid and causes hemorrhagic fever and pneumonia

hantavirus

139

this virus family is an enveloped ss - circular RNA virus with an helical capsid and causes california encephalitis, sandfly/rift valley fevers, crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever

bunyavirus

140

this member of the deltavirus family is an enveloped ss - circular RNA virus with an helical capsid and causes hepatiis

HDV

141

viral vaccines: _______ vaccines induce humoral and cell-mediated immunity but have reverted to virulence on rare occasions

live attenuated

142

______ vaccines induce only humoral immunity but are stable.

killed

143

it is dangerous to give _____ vaccines to immunocompromised pts or their close contacts

live

144

measels mumps, rubella, sabin polio, VZV, yellow fever, smallpox, adenovirus vaccine are all this type of vaccine.

live attenuated

145

rabies, influenza, HAV, and Salk Polio vaccines are all this type of vaccines

killed

mneu: SalK=Killed

146

Flu, MMR,Yellow fever are all ____ based vaccines

egg

mneu=FRY an egg

147

HBV is a _____ vaccine

recombinant

148

Viral genetics: this describes the exchange of genes between 2 chromosomes by crossing over within regions of significant base sequence homology (recombination,complimentation, reassortment, phenotypic mixing)

recombination

149

Viral genetics: this describes when viruses with segmented genomes (recombination,complimentation, reassortment, phenotypic mixing) exchange segments. It is a cause of high frequency recombinationa nd a cause of wordwide pandemics (recombination,complimentation, reassortment)

reassortment

150

Viral genetics: this describes when 1 of 2 viruses that infect the cell has a mutation that results in a non-functional protien. The nonmutated virus "complements" the mutated one by making a functional protiein that sesrves both viruses. (recombination,complimentation, reassortment, phenotypic mixing)

complimentation

151

viral vaccines: _______ vaccines induce humoral and cell-mediated immunity but have reverted to virulence on rare occasions

live attenuated

152

______ vaccines induce only humoral immunity but are stable.

killed

153

it is dangerous to give _____ vaccines to immunocompromised pts or their close contacts

live

154

measels mumps, rubella, sabin polio, VZV, yellow fever, smallpox, adenovirus vaccine are all this type of vaccine.

live attenuated

155

rabies, influenza, HAV, and Salk Polio vaccines are all this type of vaccines

killed

mneu: SalK=Killed

156

Viral genetics: this describes when genome of virus A can be coated with the surface proteins of virus B. Type B protein coat determines the infectivity of the phenotypically mixed virus. However, the progeny from this infection has a type A coat and is encoaded by its type A genetic material(recombination,complimentation, reassortment, phenotypic mixing)

phenotypic mixing

157

give the sx of the viral pathogens: herpesviruses (HSV types 1 & 2, VZV, CMV, EBV) HBV smallpox

DNA enveloped viruses

158

give the sx of the viral pathogens: adenovirus, papillomaviruses, parvovirus

DNA nucleocapsid viruses

159

give the sx of the viral pathogens: influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, RSV, measles virus, mumps virus, rubella virus, rabies virus, HTLV, HIV

RNA enveloped viruses

160

give the sx of the viral pathogens: enteroviruses (poliovirus, coxsackievirus, echovirus, HAV), rhinovirus, reovirus

RNA nucleocapsid viruses

161

explain the concept of slow virus infections and give 2 examples

virus existes in pt for months to years before it manifests as clinical dz. SSPE (late sequela of measles), PML (reactivation of JC virus) in immunocompromized pts, especially AIDS

162

segmented viruses are all ____ viruses

rna

163

segmented viruses include (4)

mneu: BOAR

Bunyaviruses
Orthomyxoviruses(influenza virus)
Arenaviruses,
Reoviruses.

164

Influenza virus consists of 8 segments that can undergo reassortment, causing antigenic ______ that lead to worldwide epidemics of the flu.

shifts

165

this group includes Poliovirus, Echovirus, Rhinovirus, Coxsackie virus, & HAV.

Picornavirus

mneu: PERCH on a "peak" (pico)

166

describe picornaviruses

small RNA virus

mneu: (pequeno) picoRNA virus

167

this type of virus is a non-enveloped RNA virus and the cause of the common cold. There is 100 serologic types

Rhinovirus

mneu: Rhino has a runny nose

168

this segmented dsRNA reovirus is the most important global cause of infantile gastroenteritis and a cause of acute diarrhea in the US during the winter

Rotavirus

mneu: ROTA=Right Out The Anus

169

this virus group causes dz in children. Members include parainfluenza (croup), mumps, and measles as well as RSV, which causes respiratory tract infections in infants. All members of this group have 1 serotype except parainfluenza which has 4

Paramyxoviruses

170

this virus is a paramyxovirus with 1 serotype. Symptoms include: Parotitis, Orchitis (inflammation of the testes) and aseptic Meningitis. It can cause sterility (esp. after puberty)

Mumps viurs

mneu: Mumps makes your parotid glands and testes as big as POM-poms.

171

pt presents with head cold, cough, conjunctivitis, & Koplik spots (bluish-gray spots on buccal mucosa). What virus?

Measles

mneu: 3 C's of measles
cough
coryza (head cold)
conjuntivitis
also Koplik spots

172

give 2 possilbe sequelae in measles

SSPE & encephalitis & giant cell pneumonia (rarely in immunosupressed)

173

What is Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)?

A chronic brain disease of children and adolescents that occurs months to often years after an attack of measles, causing convulsions, motor abnormalities, mental retardation and, usually, death.