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Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (32)
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1

What are Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA)?

They are volatile 2-5C FA
Polar

2

Common name for Ethanoic Acid (2C)

Acetic Acid

3

Common name for Propanoic Acid (3C)

Propionic Acid

4

Common name for Butanoic Acid (4C)

Butyric Acid

5

Common name for Pentanoic Acid (5C)

Valeric Acid

6

What odour does Propanoic Acid have?

Sweaty

7

What odour does Butanoic Acid have?

Human vomit

8

What are Long Chain Fatty Acids (LCFA)?

Either saturated or unsaturated even number of C >5

9

What is the effect of increased tail length on saturated FA melting point?

Mpt increases as tail length increases - more hydrophobic interactions so pack closer together = more E to overcome interactions

10

Common name for Hexadecanoic Acid (16C)

Palmitic Acid

11

Common name for Octadecanoic Acid (18C)

Stearic Acid

12

What is the effect of more C=C on the melting point of unsaturated FA?

More C=C decreases the mpt. Less tightly packed as fewer hydrophobic interactions so less E to overcome.

13

Position and number of C=C in Octadecenoic Acid

18C. 1 C=C, position 9 (18:1)

14

Position and number of C=C in Octadecadienoic Acid

18C. 2 C=C, positions 9, 12 (18:2)

15

Position and number of C=C in Octadecatrinoic Acid

18C. 3 C=C, positions 9, 12, 15 (18:3)

16

Common name for Octadecenoic Acid (18:1)

Oleic Acid

17

Common name for Octadecadienoic Acid (18:2)

Linoleic Acid

18

Common name for Octadecatrienoic Acid (18:3)

alpha-linolenic Acid

19

Reactions of FA

1. Condensation
(FA + alcohol --> ester + water)

2. Hydrolysis

(ester + water --> FA + alcohol)

20

What are acylglycerols/acylglycerides?

FA + glycerol (ester bond) --> acylglycerol + water (condensation reaction)

21

Function of triacylglycerols?

Energy store i.e. seeds or adipose tissue

22

Characteristics of energy stores?

- Compact
- Easy access
- High E/ low density
- Insoluble
- High E/ low volume
- Readily stored and released
- Separated from cell contents (e.g. dense lipid droplets)

23

Chemical reactions of TAG?

1. Hydrolysis

2. Saponification
TAG + NaOH/ KOH --> glycerol + FA salts (soap)

3. Iodination
saturated FA + I2 --> unsaturated FA

4. Hydrogenation
unsaturated FA + H2 --> saturated FA

24

What is the Saponification Value?

mg of KOH needed to saponify 1g of oil or fat

high value = lots of short chains (lower weight so more KOH/g)
low value = lots of long chains

i.e. chainlength

25

What is the Iodine Number?

g of iodine which will combine with 100g of oil or fat

high value = lots of C=C/ high proportion of unsaturated FA
low value = fewer C=C/ lower proportion of saturated FA

i.e. number of C=C

26

X groups of phospholipids/phosphoglycerols`

- Serine
- Ethanolamine
- Choline

27

Phospholipid nomenclature

phophatidyl-X

28

Structures formed by amphipathic phospholipids

- Monolayers (liquid-air interface)
- Micelles
- Bilayers (liquid-liquid interface)

29

Components of biological bilayer membranes

- Sterols i.e. cholesterol, stigmasterol
- Proteins
- Carbohydrates

30

Types of membrane proteins

- Integral - span membrane or partial immersion
- Peripheral