Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (32)
What are Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA)?
They are volatile 2-5C FA
Common name for Ethanoic Acid (2C)
Common name for Propanoic Acid (3C)
Common name for Butanoic Acid (4C)
Common name for Pentanoic Acid (5C)
What odour does Propanoic Acid have?
What odour does Butanoic Acid have?
What are Long Chain Fatty Acids (LCFA)?
Either saturated or unsaturated even number of C >5
What is the effect of increased tail length on saturated FA melting point?
Mpt increases as tail length increases - more hydrophobic interactions so pack closer together = more E to overcome interactions
Common name for Hexadecanoic Acid (16C)
Common name for Octadecanoic Acid (18C)
What is the effect of more C=C on the melting point of unsaturated FA?
More C=C decreases the mpt. Less tightly packed as fewer hydrophobic interactions so less E to overcome.
Position and number of C=C in Octadecenoic Acid
18C. 1 C=C, position 9 (18:1)
Position and number of C=C in Octadecadienoic Acid
18C. 2 C=C, positions 9, 12 (18:2)
Position and number of C=C in Octadecatrinoic Acid
18C. 3 C=C, positions 9, 12, 15 (18:3)
Common name for Octadecenoic Acid (18:1)
Common name for Octadecadienoic Acid (18:2)
Common name for Octadecatrienoic Acid (18:3)
Reactions of FA
(FA + alcohol --> ester + water)
(ester + water --> FA + alcohol)
What are acylglycerols/acylglycerides?
FA + glycerol (ester bond) --> acylglycerol + water (condensation reaction)
Function of triacylglycerols?
Energy store i.e. seeds or adipose tissue
Characteristics of energy stores?
- Easy access
- High E/ low density
- High E/ low volume
- Readily stored and released
- Separated from cell contents (e.g. dense lipid droplets)
Chemical reactions of TAG?
TAG + NaOH/ KOH --> glycerol + FA salts (soap)
saturated FA + I2 --> unsaturated FA
unsaturated FA + H2 --> saturated FA
What is the Saponification Value?
mg of KOH needed to saponify 1g of oil or fat
high value = lots of short chains (lower weight so more KOH/g)
low value = lots of long chains
What is the Iodine Number?
g of iodine which will combine with 100g of oil or fat
high value = lots of C=C/ high proportion of unsaturated FA
low value = fewer C=C/ lower proportion of saturated FA
i.e. number of C=C
X groups of phospholipids/phosphoglycerols`
Structures formed by amphipathic phospholipids
- Monolayers (liquid-air interface)
- Bilayers (liquid-liquid interface)
Components of biological bilayer membranes
- Sterols i.e. cholesterol, stigmasterol