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Flashcards in Vertebrate Biology Deck (161)
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1

Monophyletic

CA + all descendants

2

Polyphyletic

Doesn’t include CA of all groups

3

Paraphyletic

Group descended from CA but doesn’t include all descendant groups

4

Chordate features

1. Dorsal notochord
2. Dorsal nerve chord
3. Bilateral symmetry
4. Pharyngeal slits
5. Endostyle

5

Lower vertebrates

1. Jawless fish
2. Chondrichthyes
3. Osteichthyes
4. Lissamphibia

6

Higher vertebrates

Amniotes:
1. Testudines
2. Lepidosauria
3. Crocodilia
4. Aves
5. Mammalia

7

Vertebrate features

1. Postanal tail
2. Pharyngeal pouches
3. Vertebral column
4. Anterior brain
5. Craniates
6. Closed circulatory circuits
7. W-shaped myomeres
8. Organ systems

8

Dorsal fin

Anti-roll stabilising

9

Pectoral fin

Steering + lift

10

Pelvic fin

Stabilisers

11

Caudal fin

Thrust

12

Types of lift

1. Dynamic
2. Static

13

Chondrichthyes osmoregulatory adaptations

1. Isotonic
2. High urea and TMAO concentration
3. Large glomeruli
4. Rectal gland
5. Low ion and urea permeability in gills

14

Scale types

1. Placoid
2. Cosmoid
3. Ganoid
4. Ctenoid
5. Cycloid

15

Gas bladder connections

1. Physostomus
2. Physoclistous

16

Fish body locomotion

1. Anguilliform
2. Carangiform
3. Subcarangiform
4. Thunniform
5. Ostraciforms

17

Fish fin locomotion

1. Tetraodontiform
2. Labriforms
3. Amiiform
4. Gymnotiform
5. Balistiform

18

Types of drag

1. Viscous
2. Inertial

20

Ampullae of Lorenzini

Electroreceptors

21

Lateral line

Mechanical system

36

Anguilliform

Whole body movements

37

Subcarangiform

Tail and posterior sides

38

Amphibian teeth

Pedicellate
= crown, uncalcified mid section + dentine base

39

Amphibian Skin glands

1. Mucous
2. Granular
3 Hedonic (some males)

40

Amphibian Sound detection

1. Basilar papilla: 1200-1600Hz
2. Amphibian papilla: 200-800Hz

41

Carangiform

More oscillating than sub

42

Amphibian Skin pigments

1. Melanophores - Black,Brown, red
2. Iridophores - reflect light
3. Xanthophores - yellow, orange, red

43

Thunniform

Only tail

44

Ostraciform

Tail movement as body rigid

45

Tetraodontiformes

Dorsal and anal fins