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Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (20)
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1

Gout is estimated to effect __% of the U.S. population.

Gout is estimated to effect 4% of the U.S. population.

2

Gout

The buildup and accumulation of uric acid. Uric acid is a breakdown product of nucleotides.  In gout, uric acid forms crystals which induce inflammation and arthritis.

 

Acute gout attacks cause intense pain and may be debilitating.

3

What reaction is coupled to polypeptide elongation at the ribosome in order to supply the energy for protein synthesis?

GTP hydrolysis

4

Delta G of ATP hydrolysis

-31 kJ/mol

5

Each pyruvate entering the TCA cycle yields . . .

4 NADH

1 FADH2

1 GTP

6

Electron Transport Chain

7

Complex 2

8

Cyanide is a. . .

competitive inhibitor of ETC Complex 4.  

 

It competes for the oxygen binding site, preventing oxygen from acting as the terminal electron acceptor.

9

Lactic acid fermentation

10

Lactic acid fermentation is utilized primarily in. . .

muscle cells during exercise

erythrocytes, which lack mitochondria

11

Spot Glucose

A blood test to measure the level of glucose in the blood at the time of the test. For individuals who do not have diabetes, glucose levels 12 hours after the last meal (fasting) should be less than 100 mg/dL.

12

Bypass reactions

Reactions that are irreversible in cells often have bypass reactions that enable cells to recover some of the reactants of the forward reaction. Bypass reactions often require an investment of energy, such as the energy stored in ATP.  Required for reversing the most exergonic reactions.

13

Futile Cycle

If the enzymes catalyzing an irreversible reaction and its bypass reaction are active at the same time in the same cells, the net result is just a waste of energy; this is called a futile cycle. Enzymes catalyzing such opposing reactions must be tightly regulated to prevent futile metabolic cycles.

14

Acetyl-CoA cannot. . .

Be recovered for carbon backbones.  Consequently, carbons from lipids may not be used for gluconeogenesis, only to harness energy.

15

Diet and energy map

16

____________ is typically used as a way to transport energy between tissues in times where cells need to generate ATP, because its energy can be extracted more quickly than the energy from ____________.

glucose is typically used as a way to transport energy between tissues in times where cells need to generate ATP, because its energy can be extracted more quickly than the energy from fatty acids.

17

Three P's

Polyuria

Polydipsia

Polyphagia

18

DKA

an acronym for diabetic ketoacidosis, a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes in which the liver produces large quantities of ketone bodies.

19

Encephalopathic

a general term for signs and symptoms caused by brain dysfunction. In this case, the patient is referring to confusion brought on by prolonged ketoacidosis.

20

When you hear nausea and high blood glucose, think

diabetic ketoacidosis