Biochemistry and Urinalysis Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology, Immunology and Toxicology > Biochemistry and Urinalysis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biochemistry and Urinalysis Deck (49):
1

Give examples of clinical pathology tests...

Haematology
Clotting profile
Biochemistry
Urinalysis
Cytology

2

What is biochemistry used for?

Evaluating different organ systems
Measuring enzymes, metabolites, electrolytes

3

Why is serum recommended for most biochemical tests rather than plasma?

Anticoagulants in plasma can interfere with some tests

4

What is the difference between serum and plasma?

Plasma contains all clotting factors including fibrogen, where as serum is fluid after clot formation

5

How would you collect serum?

Collect blood intro tubes without anti-coagulatants (brown/red top)

6

How would you separate serum?

Allow blood to clot and remove serum
Centrifuge
Serum separator tube
Separate immediately if possible
Store in fridge at 4deg

7

How would you collect plasma?

Collect from blood into EDTA, heparin or citrate
Blood won't clot so need to separate plasma via centrifugation
Store at 4 deg

8

What is measured in a biochemical profile?

Total protein
Albumin
Globulins
Bicarbonate
Anion gap
Calcium
Phosphorus
Glucose
Electrolytes
Urea nitrogen
Creatinine
Bilirubin
Cholesterol
Amylase
Lipase
CK
ALT
ALP
SDH
GLDH

9

Why are total protein levels often higher in plasma?

Fibrinogen is included

10

What is total protein made up of?

Albumin
Globulins

11

How is total protein measured?

Using a refractometer

12

What conditions may falsely increase total proteins?

Icterus
Severe haemolysis
Lipemia (blocks light so can appear darker blue)

13

How can you stop dietary lipemia increasing TP measurements?

Starve animal before test

14

What increases TP?

Dehydration
Inflammation
Neoplasia

15

What decreases TP?

Loss
Decreased synthesis
Dilution

16

Why do globulin need to be separated by electrophoresis?

There are different types

17

What can cause an increase in globulins?

Inflammation (polyclonal)
Neoplasia (monoclonal)

18

How can you calculate globulin levels?

Take TP, removed AL and whats left is globulins

19

What is polyclonal gammopathy?

Increase in all types of globulins e.g. FIP

20

What is monoclonal gammopathy?

Increase in a single type of Ig by a single clone of cells e.g. plasma cell tumour

21

What causes an increase in albumin?

Dehydration

22

What causes a decrease in albumin?

Increased loss (renal, GI, haemorrhage)
Decreased synth (liver)
Third spacing (effusions)

23

What does it mean if you are dehydrated and have normal albumin levels?

You had low albumin to start with

24

How would you evaluate liver function?

Enzymes
Metabolites
Function tests

25

What does an increase in liver enzymes mean?

Leak from damaged cells so indicates liver disease

26

How would you evaluate pancreas function?

Amylase and lipase

27

What could an increase in pancreatic enzymes be indicative of?

Leak from damaged cells (pancreatitis)
Renal insufficiency

28

What do you need to look at to evaluate the urinary system?

Serum chemistry
Urine

29

What are good indicators of GFR?

Urea
Creatinine

30

What is low urea indicative of'?

Liver damage

31

What is high urea indicative of?

Kidney damage

32

What is creatinine derived from and what does an increase menan?

Creatine in muscle (influenced by mm)
Increase - kidneys not excreting it properly

33

What is azotemia?

Increase in nitrogenous waste in circulation

34

What can cause azotemia?

Pre-renal (dehydration)
Renal (renal disease)
Post-renal (obstruction)

35

Describe pre-renal azotemia...

Decreased blood volume + therefore pressure
Body responds by increasing HR and constricting vessels
Reduces kidney filtration and urea excretion

36

What would you check to analyse the cause of azotemia?

USG
Blood and urine analysis

37

If urea and creatinine are increased what should the urine specific gravity be in...
a. Dog
b. Cat
c. Horse/ruminant
What does it mean if the values are less?

a. 1.030
b. 1.035
c. 1.025

Decreased concentrating ability and renal failure is present

38

What species is urea not a reliable indicator of renal disease in? Why? What should be used instead?

Ruminants
Urea levels influenced by protein intake , high protein meal, GI bleeding
Creatinine

39

Why may you get increased sodium levels?

Increased intake
Increased water loss
Decrease water intake

40

Why might you get decreased sodium levels?

Increased loss
Increased water intake

41

What is the main ion in ECF?

Sodium

42

What is the main ion in intracellular space?

Potassium

43

What is an increase in potassium associated with?

Renal failure
HypoAC
Leakage from cells (tissue damage, thombocytosis, leukemia)

44

What is a decrease in potassium associated with?

Loss (renal, vomiting, diarrhoea)
Decreased intake

45

What do changes in chloride usually coincide with?

Changes in sodium

46

What are changes in chloride without sodium associated with?

Alterations in acid-base balance
Vomiting
Abomasal displacement

47

When you measure total calcium what are you measuring?

Free calcium
Bound calcium

48

What is an increase in phosphorus associated with?

Renal disease
Young growing animals with also evaluated Ca and ALP

49

What do you analyse with urinalysis?

Gross appearance
Chemical analysis (SG, dipstick)
Sediment analysis (cellular elements, crystals, casts)