Haematology Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology, Immunology and Toxicology > Haematology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Haematology Deck (37):
1

What is PCV?

Packed cell volume - volume percentage of RBCs in blood

2

What is the buddy coat?

Layer in between plasma and RBC containing leucocytes and platelets

3

What is RBC?

Red blood cell concentration

4

What is HGB?

Amount of haemoglobin in the blood in g/dL

5

What is HCT?

Haematocrit (PCV)

6

What is MCV?

Mean corpuscular volume - average volume of the red blood cells

7

What is MCH?

Mean corpuscular haemoglobin - average haemoglobin per red blood cell

8

What is MCHC?

Mean cell haemoglobin concentration - average concentration of haemoglobin in the cells

9

What is RDW?

Red cell distribution - variation of cellular volume with the RBC population

10

What is the difference between haemoglobin content and concentration?

Content = g
Concentration = g/dL

11

How can you class anaemia?

Mild, moderate or severe?
Regenerative or non-regenerative?

12

How would you class anaemia in terms of MCV (cell size)?

Normocytic
Microcytic
Macrocytic

13

How would you class anaemia in terms of MCHC?

Normochromic
Hypochromic
Hyperchromic

14

How could you tell whether you have a regenerative anaemia?

Whether bone marrow has responded to a drop in oxygen tension - (more new RBCs)

15

What is normocytic anaemia?

Erythrocytes of unremarkable size (associated with Non-regenerative anaemia)

e.g. acute haemorrhage

16

What is microcytic anaemia?

Small RBCs
Associated with Fe deficiency and hepatic failure or genetics (Akitas)

17

What causes microcytic anaemia?

Red cell haemoglobin concentration determines when the red blood cell division stops -> iron deficiency allows for an extra division

18

What is marcocytic anaemia?

In regeneration, young red blood cells are bigger

19

What is a polychromatophil?

Young RBC
Stains more blue and larger with Diff-Quick

20

What is normochromic/hypocrhomic anaemia?

Based on haemoglobin concentration --> Fe deficiency

21

What are the only 2 reasons for regenerative anaemia?

Haemolysis
Haemorrhage

22

What are the most common causes of non-regenerative anaemia?

Anaemia of chronic disease
Chronic renal failure
Decreased production in marrow

23

What is a reticulocyte?

Young RBS
RNA precipitates forming aggregates with New Methylene Blue

24

What is the difference between polychromatophil/reticulocyte?

They are the same cell, just stained differently

25

How would you proportion reticulocytes change in anaemic animals?

Proportion would increase

26

What may you see in a blood smear that would be useful in terms of diagnostics?

Spherocytes
Ghost cells
Leptocytosis
Shear products
Oxidative damage
Organisms

27

What is WBC?

White blood cell concentration

28

What is neutrophilia?

Increased number of neutrophils

29

What is neutropenia?

During inflammation blood levels decrease as they relocate to tissues

30

What is left shift?

Increase in band neutrophil production

31

What is a clue of toxicity in a neutrophil?

Frothy blue cytoplasma
Dohle bodies

32

What is a regenerative left shift?

Neutrophilia
Segmented > Bands

33

What is degenerative left shift?

Neutropenia
Bands > Segmented

34

Describe acute leukemia

Blast cells in circulation
More likely to be lymphoid origin
If signs of segmented - myeloid origin

35

Describe chronic leukemia

Chronic lymphoid leukaemia -> lymphocytes appear small and mature

Chronic myeloid leukaemia -> neutrophils appear normal

36

What is a problem with platelets in terms of complete blood counts?

Clumping means machines underestimate

37

What is haematopoietin?

Protein that enhances erythopoiesis
Stimulates formation of proerythroblasts and release of reticulocytes from the bone marrow
Formed by kidney and liver.