Flashcards in Haematology Deck (37):
What is PCV?
Packed cell volume - volume percentage of RBCs in blood
What is the buddy coat?
Layer in between plasma and RBC containing leucocytes and platelets
What is RBC?
Red blood cell concentration
What is HGB?
Amount of haemoglobin in the blood in g/dL
What is HCT?
What is MCV?
Mean corpuscular volume - average volume of the red blood cells
What is MCH?
Mean corpuscular haemoglobin - average haemoglobin per red blood cell
What is MCHC?
Mean cell haemoglobin concentration - average concentration of haemoglobin in the cells
What is RDW?
Red cell distribution - variation of cellular volume with the RBC population
What is the difference between haemoglobin content and concentration?
Content = g
Concentration = g/dL
How can you class anaemia?
Mild, moderate or severe?
Regenerative or non-regenerative?
How would you class anaemia in terms of MCV (cell size)?
How would you class anaemia in terms of MCHC?
How could you tell whether you have a regenerative anaemia?
Whether bone marrow has responded to a drop in oxygen tension - (more new RBCs)
What is normocytic anaemia?
Erythrocytes of unremarkable size (associated with Non-regenerative anaemia)
e.g. acute haemorrhage
What is microcytic anaemia?
Associated with Fe deficiency and hepatic failure or genetics (Akitas)
What causes microcytic anaemia?
Red cell haemoglobin concentration determines when the red blood cell division stops -> iron deficiency allows for an extra division
What is marcocytic anaemia?
In regeneration, young red blood cells are bigger
What is a polychromatophil?
Stains more blue and larger with Diff-Quick
What is normochromic/hypocrhomic anaemia?
Based on haemoglobin concentration --> Fe deficiency
What are the only 2 reasons for regenerative anaemia?
What are the most common causes of non-regenerative anaemia?
Anaemia of chronic disease
Chronic renal failure
Decreased production in marrow
What is a reticulocyte?
RNA precipitates forming aggregates with New Methylene Blue
What is the difference between polychromatophil/reticulocyte?
They are the same cell, just stained differently
How would you proportion reticulocytes change in anaemic animals?
Proportion would increase
What may you see in a blood smear that would be useful in terms of diagnostics?
What is WBC?
White blood cell concentration
What is neutrophilia?
Increased number of neutrophils
What is neutropenia?
During inflammation blood levels decrease as they relocate to tissues
What is left shift?
Increase in band neutrophil production
What is a clue of toxicity in a neutrophil?
Frothy blue cytoplasma
What is a regenerative left shift?
Segmented > Bands
What is degenerative left shift?
Bands > Segmented
Describe acute leukemia
Blast cells in circulation
More likely to be lymphoid origin
If signs of segmented - myeloid origin
Describe chronic leukemia
Chronic lymphoid leukaemia -> lymphocytes appear small and mature
Chronic myeloid leukaemia -> neutrophils appear normal
What is a problem with platelets in terms of complete blood counts?
Clumping means machines underestimate