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Flashcards in Biodiversity And Evolution Lab Deck (33)
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1

Biodiversity (4)

The diversity of life forms in an environment
Refers to the variety of species, the genes they contain, and the ecosystems they live in
Is most concentrated around the equator
Highly diverse ecosystems are more stable/better able to withstand environmental change

2

Species diversity

The number and variety of the species present in any biological community (multiple species in an area) population: 1 species

3

Genetic diversity

The variety of genes found in a population or in a species

4

Ecosystem diversity

The variety of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems found in an area or on earth

5

Functional diversity

The variety of processes such as energy flow and matter cycling that occur within ecosystems

6

Evolution

The change in the genetic makeup of a population over time

7

Natural selection

Individuals with certain traits are more likely to survive and reproduce under a particular set of environmental conditions than are those without the traits

8

Adaptation (2)

A trait that improves an individual's fitness
The genetically inheritable traits that make an organism more likely to survive and reproduce

9

Theory of evolution (3)

All species evolved from earlier, ancestral species
Life comes from life
Populations become different over time, not individuals

10

Speciation (2)

The evolution of a new species
One species splits into two or more different species

11

Geographic isolation

Physical separation of a group of individuals from others of the same species

12

Reproductive isolation

The result of two populations within a species evolving separately to the point that they can no longer interbreed and produce viable offspring

13

Artificial selection

Process by which humans select one or more desirable genetic traits in a population of organisms and then use selective breeding to produce populations containing many individuals with the desired traits

14

Genetic engineering

Insertion of a foreign gene into an organism to give it a beneficial genetic trait

15

Extinction (3)

When an entire species disappears from the earth
May be caused when environmental conditions change dramatically or rapidly
Endemic species are especially vulnerable

16

Background extinction rate

The average rate at which species become extinct over the long term

17

Endemic species

Species found commonly in particular area

18

Mass extinction

A large extinction of species in a relatively short period of time

19

Niche

An organisms way of life including everything that would affect its survival and reproduction

20

Generalist species

Have broad niches since they have a variety of food sources and demonstrate a wide range of tolerance for environmental conditions

21

Specialist species

Have narrow niches and typically feed on only one food source and most likely tolerate only a narrow range of environmental conditions

22

Native species (2)

Organisms that typically live and flourish in a particular environment
May be outcompeted by invasive species

23

No native

Not in a particular area

24

Keystone species (3)

A species that plays a far more important role in its community than its relative abundance might suggest
Play roles affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem
Disappearance of these organisms has great impact on community

25

Indicator species (3)

A species that indicates whether or not disease causing pathogens are likely to be present
Provide an early warning of damage to a community or ecosystem
Are sensitive to change in certain abiotic factors

26

Interspecific competition

The competition between two or more species for the same limited resources

27

Predation

An interaction in which one animal kills and consumes another animal

28

Parasitism

One organism gains energy by living on or inside a host organism

29

Mutualism

Two organisms interact in a manner that is beneficial to both in some way

30

Commensalism

Interaction that benefits one species but has little to no impact on the other

31

Ecological succession

The gradual change in species abundance and diversity after environmental disturbances

32

Primary succession

The establishment of a biotic community from a previously lifeless terrain

33

Secondary succession

The est of a biotic community in an area where an ecosystem has been disturbed, removed, or destroyed, but some soil or bottom sediment remains