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Philosophy II - Final > Biological Paradigms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biological Paradigms Deck (33):
1

What are the two fundamental biological paradigms?

-Mechanism/atomism
-Vitalism

2

How is life explained through mechanism/atomism?

Life can be explained by actions of physical, chemical, and electrical forces

3

What is the central dogma of biology according to mechanism?

Life is complex carbon based chemistry and DNA ultimately codes for life processes

4

The "whole is equal to the sum of its parts" is part of what biological paradigm?

Mechanical/atomism

5

T/F: Life and its functions depend on a "vital influence" which is Physical in nature

False - Vital influence is Non Physical in nature

6

What does Vitalism derive from?

Dualism

7

What does life equal?

Life = chemistry "animated" by a spirit/force

8

T/F: Vitalism is not an inclusive doctrine

False - it IS inclusive - matter/chemistry + the additional influence of a seperate, non physical entity or field

9

What are the two versions of Vitalism?

-Extreme vitalism aka naive vitalism
-Moderate vitalism aka critical vitalism

10

What version of vitalism is the presence in living systems of a substantial entity that imparts to the system powers possessed by no inanimate body?

Extreme (naive) vitalism

11

What vitalism is the "ghost in the machine"?

Extreme (naive) vitalism

12

What vitalism is the popular doctrine that is reinforced by common sense and everyday language?

Extreme (naive) vitalism

13

Frankensteins monster is an example of what vitalism?

Extreme (naive) vitalism

14

What is moderate vitalism also known as?

Critical vitalism

15

What vitalism believes "life in matter inseparably"?

Moderate (critical) vitalism

16

T/F: In moderate vitalism, vital forces are never a part of, always apart from, the process of living things

False - Vital forces are ALWAYS part of, NEVER apart from, the process of living things

17

What immaterial expression (mind) co evolves with the physical structure as an extension of "property" dualism in what vitalism?

Moderate (critical) vitalism

18

T/F: Life is like an autonomous, mind like, non-spatial entity that exercises control over organic processes in Critical vitalism

True - Critical vitalism aka Moderate vitalism

19

What are chiropractics "untestable" metaphors?

Universal and innate intelligence

20

What mechanism is equated with contemporary "organismic" biology?

Moderate mechanism

21

What is like vitalism that opposes the reduction of biology to physics and chemistry?

Organicism

22

What is the Szent-Gyorgi experience?

The whole is more than the sum of its parts but NOT due to the addition of a seperate, non physical activity

23

How can moderate mechanism/organicism be expressed?

The presence in living systems of emergent properties, contingent upon the organization of inanimate parts, but not reducible to them

24

T/F: Life is epiphenomenal or an emergent property of matter in Moderate mechanism

True

25

What is another word for the non physical entity that is required for life that is self organizing and self maintaining?

Autopoietic and structurally antientropic

26

How does chiropractic philosophy relate to living human beings?

-Self forming (autopoietic)
-Self organizing (structurally antientropic)
-Self regulating (homeostatic)
-Self repairing (self healing)

27

What does "entropy" refer to?

Thermodynamic term meaning energy equilibrium

28

What is the ever growing disorder in the universe over time that proceeds toward disorder/randomness?

Structural entropy

29

What does "structural antientropy" refer to?

Development of INCREASED order or organization, sometimes aka "syntropy"

30

What kind of paradigm is chiropractic philosophy essentially?

Vitalistic paradigm - life itself is not an entity apart from the organism

31

What are the metaphors for the self forming (autopoietic), self organizing (structurally antientropic), and self regulating (homeostatic) properties of living?

Universal and innate intelligence

32

T/F: Extreme mechanism is as dogmatic and unproven as the animating life force view of naive vitalism

True

33

Not really a question but VERY IMPORTANT!
*The vitalistic approach does not necessary require the assumption of beliefs consistent with a theistic teleology (NOT a religion)

However, it does accommodate such beliefs