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Flashcards in Biologically improtant molecules Deck (40):
1

water-"loving"

hydrophilic

2

water- "fearing"

hydrophobic

3

two or more polypeptide chains coming together and bonding with each other

quaternary structure

4

to permanently change the 3 dimensional structure of a protein

denature

5

the subunit that makes up nucleic acids- 4 types in DNA are ATCG

nucleotide

6

the smallest unit of matter that cannot normally be broken into smaller particles

atom

7

the process of breaking down large fat droplets into smaller fat droplets

emulsification

8

the loose association of amino acids in a polypeptide chain with each other, usually through H-bonds e.g. alpha helix, beta pleated sheet

secondary structure

9

the linear sequence of amino acids in a protein, which ultimately determines its shape

primary structure

10

the building block of protein - there are 20 different kinds normally found in nature

amino acid

11

the bond that forms between two amino acids joined by dehydration synthesis

peptide bond

12

the 3-D shape of a polypeptide chain due to it folding back on itself and forming bonds

tertiary structure

13

molecules with identical formulas but different structural arrangements of atoms

isomers

14

elements with identical atomic numbers, but different number of neutrons

isotopes

15

creating a bond between two atoms by taking OH from one atom and H from the other

dehydration synthesis

16

breaking a bond between two atoms by adding OH to one atom and H to the other

hydrolysis

17

biological catalysts, composed of protein, that speed up chemical reactions

enzymes

18

ATP (adenosine triphosphate) the molecule that carries energy in the cell

adenosine triphosphate

19

any molecule with the molecular formula Cn(H2O)n

carbohydrate

20

an important component of cell membranes , has a hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail

phospholipid

21

an enzyme that breaks down maltose to two glucose molecules

maltase

22

an atom or molecule that has either lost or gained electrons

ion

23

a weak bond due to the attraction between partial charges on hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms

hydrogen bond

24

a polymer of glucose, used as a structural component of plant cell walls

cellulose

25

a polymer of glucose, used as a storage form for glucose in animals

glycogen

26

a polymer of glucose, used as a storage form for glucose in plants

starch

27

a loss of Hydrogen atoms (or electrons)

oxidation

28

a lipid that is an important component of cell membranes and from which steroid hormones are made

cholesterol

29

a lipid composed of glycerol joined together to 3 fatty acids

neutral fat

30

a large organic molecule formed from a chain or chains of amino acids

protein

31

a large molecule made by joining together smaller identical (or similar) molecules

polymer

32

a gain of Hydrogen atoms (or electrons)

reduction

33

a fatty acid whose carbons are all joined to the maximum number of hydrogens

saturated fatty acid

34

a fatty acid that has a "kink" in it due to a double bond between carbon atoms

unsaturated fatty acid

35

a disaccharide consisting of two glucose molecules

maltose

36

a class of molecules that includes neural fats and steroids

lipid

37

a chemical that resists change in pH

buffer

38

a 6 carbon sugar that forms a 6-mmber ring - used as energy source by cells

glucose

39

three carbon that joins with fatty acids to produce triglycerides

glycerol

40

molecules that store genetic information (e.g. DNA and RNA)

nucleic acids