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Flashcards in DNA Study Guide Deck (28):
1

Two things that tRNA carries

anticodon + an amino acid

2

In RNA, uracil replaces this base and pairs with adenine

Thymine

3

The type of bonds which holds the sugar of one nucleotide to the phosphate of another nucleotide

covalent bond

4

The backbone of DNA and RNA consists of these 2 subparts of nucleotides

Sugar and phosphate group

5

One strand of DNA is held together to the other stand (because DNA is double stranded) by this type of bond

Hydrogen bond

6

UV Rays, X-rays, cosmic rays and nuclear reactors are all examples of this type of mutagen

Radiation mutagens

7

Cigarette smoke, pesticides, PCB's and specific pollutants are all examples of this type of mutagen

Chemical mutagens

8

This is what the tRNA brings to the ribosome in order for it to match to a particular codon of the mRNA

Anticodon

9

Each amino acid is "coded for" by this (which consists of 3 bases on mRNA)

Codon

10

This is the general name of any environmental factor which causes mutations in the DNA of an organism

Mutagens

11

This is what is produced during transcription and is made up of bases which are complementary to the DNA template strand

mRNA

12

proteins are made during protein synthesis (a.k.a. translation) and this process occurs on this cell organelle

ribosomes

13

this group of nitrogenous bases contain only 1 ring

pyrimidines

14

this group of nitrogenous bases contain 2 rings

purines

15

In DNA thymine always pairs with his base

Adenine

16

In DNA and RNA, cytosine always pairs with this base

guanine

17

The purines consist of these bases

A and G

18

The pyrimidines consist of these bases

Cytosine, thymine, uracil

19

These are made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group

nucleotide

20

This is what happens whenever there is a change in the bases (nucleotides) in DNA

Mutation

21

This type of nucleic acid is single stranded, has the sugar ribose and the nitrogenous base uracil

RNA

22

This type of nucleic acid is double stranded, has the sugar deoxyribose and the nitrogenous base thymine

DNA

23

Ribosomes are made up of these 2 parts

rRNA and Protein

24

Initiation, elongation and termination are all part of this process

translation

25

DNA carries the genetic code which can also be called this (since every 3 bases will code for one amino acid)

Triplet code

26

This term refers to DNA replication because each new DNA strand consists of one old DNA stand and one new DNA stand

Semi - conservative

27

This is what results when you insert DNA from one species in the DNA of another species

Recombinant DNA

28

This is the name of the structures in which multiple ribosomes work together to translate the same mRNA stand

polyribosomes