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Flashcards in Biology 11 diversity Deck (94):

Name of person that developed the Binomial Nomenclature

-Carl Linnaeus
-Swedish naturalist
-he created taxonomy (father of taxonomy)



The Science of Classifying organisms (including living and fossils)-->any type of organism
-Linnaeus: according to morphology similarities and a naming system (still used today)-->Taxonomic ranks



Phylogeny: Study of evolutionary relatedness between, and amoung species (similar to a large family tree).
-->not morphology
-follows a lineage's evolutionary relationships among species through time

-Involves phylogenetic tree

Relatedness: based on similar characteristics, time, distances in time, common ancestors


7 main traditional taxonomic ranks



Function/purpose of a phylogenetic tree

-displays the evolutionary history of a species or a group of them
-shows the evolutionary relationships between and among species. It is a history of lineages of organisms as they change through time.
-relatedness between species

Within trees:
-species grouped into clades (Taxonomic group that includes a SINGLE ANCESTOR species and all of its DESCENDANTS)
-large (distant common ancestor)
-small (recent common ancestor)


Carl Linnaeus vs Carl Woese

-created/father of current classification and taxonomy
-created the binomial nomenclature (2 part name for classifying)
-He introduced a consistent way of grouping species according to their morphology (physical) similarities and a naming system (used today)

Woese: 1996
-identified the three domains (above the kingdoms)-->eubacteria, archaea, Eukaryotes
-Shows significant genetic differences
Highest taxonomic level of classification


What is a clade?

Monophyletic/Taxonomic group that includes a single ancestor species and all of its descendants -->members share one or more defining derived traits

Cladistics: HYPOTHESES on evolutionary relationships among clades
• If there are many possible ways that a group of clades can be connected, then the simplest evolutionary pathway is probably correct (derived traits evolved the fewest number of times) ←process called parsimony analysis (finding simplest path)
• Cladogram: type of evolutionary tree (showing evolutionary relationships/sets within sets of derived traits)


What are sister groups?

Sister groups: the two lineages that emerge from a node on a cladogram


What are taxonomic ranks?

Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species


Terms relating to oxygen and bacteria
-need oxygen
-can survive without oxygen
-cannot live with oxygen

-need oxygen (aerobes)
-Can survive WITHOUT OXYGEN: facultative aerobes
-cannot live with oxygen: anaerobes


Species definition

A group whose members are able to FREELY breed among themselves under NATURAL conditions

-->Biological species concept (exception to the definitions occurs for some animals and plants who undergo hybridization-cross breeding of two different species)


When traditional definition doesn't apply....

...Scientists classify organisms by morphology-Physical appearance and characteristics of an organism


Biodiversity variability

• Individuals within a species can carry different traits both physical and genetic due to genetic variability and evolutionary changes
o Limitations: physical appearance can change
o Even same species, there are some difference
• Due to random assignment of genes
o Ex: humans (1% genetic difference/different looks)
• Known as individual variability: 1 species is different from others due to random assignment of genes

• All species within an ecosystem depend on one another to maintain biodiversity
• Food supply, protection, transportation, reproduction, hygiene, digestion


Biodiversity classification

Taxonomy: science of classifying all organisms (including living and fossils)→ a system of naming and classifying species.

Carl Linnaeus created this way of classifying. He introduced a consistent way of grouping species according to their morphology (physical) similarities and a naming system (used today)


Linnaean system/binomial nomenclature

Species given a unique two-part name

Genus species
-written in Latin
-either written in italics or underlined
-only the genus is capitalized

*Every species has a scientific name and common/broader name


Dichotomous Key

-for untrained scientists
-Used to classify organisms based on morphology
-Large set of items is broken down into smaller subsets ultimately leading to the smallest available classification

Two ways: visual or descriptions


Current Taxonomy today

Country: kingdom
Province: phylum
City: class
Street: order
House Number: family
Surname: genus
First name: species


6 Kingdom



Tree of life shows that... (connection)

Every single species is related to each other (either distant or closely related)


Biological Species Concept

• defines a species as members of populations that actually or potentially interbreed in nature, not according to similarity of appearance
• two species may look the same, but if they cannot breed freely in nature, then not species


Characteristics of Prokaryotes

• Single celled
• Lack membrane bound organelles (no nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts)
• Smallest organisms on Earth (1-2 um long)
• Only about 10 000 prokaryote species have been isolated and identified (many are not identified -->many are archaea species)

Includes Kingdom Protista (some), Eubacteria and Archaea


Importance of Prokaryotes/bacteria

-Bacteria most common to us
-Responsible for many diseases in humans and organisms
 Infectious bacteria called pathogens
 Also infect livestock and crops, therefore threaten our primary food sources
 Pathogens are harmful, however some diseases that harms certain species are beneficial to others
 Ex. Predator/Prey
-Bacteria can also be beneficial
 Decomposers, and producers (microorganisms and photosynthetic bacteria)-->bring nutrients back to soil (growth)
 Humans rely on them to produce vitamin K and B12
 Ecoli
 Commercial uses
Food: cheeses, yogurt (Ex: probiotic), soy sauce, chocolate
 Antibiotics
 Insulin, HgH (human growth hormone)


Kingdom Eubacteria
-major groups (6)


6 major groups of Eubacteria:
 Proteobacteria (purple bacteria) – photosynthetic
 Green bacteria – photosynthetic
 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) – photosynthetic
 Gram Positive bacteria – cause many diseases
 Spirochetes – cause syphilis (highly contagious, STD)
 Chlamydias – cause chlamydia (STI)


Kingdom Eubacteria
DNA location?

Prokaryotic, mostly unicellular
Single loop chromosome of DNA found in nucleoid (no nucleus)
-Ribosomes scattered throughout cytoplasm
-Plasmid: small loop of DNA carrying a small number of genes -->changes to fight antibiotics
 Genes not essential for cellular function but do provide advantages for the cell
 Bacterial resistance to antibiotics

-One or more flagella (tails)
-Pili –hair (help cell attach to other cells or surfaces)
-Cell walls composed primarily of peptidoglycan
 Large molecule that forms chains
 Chains become cross linked making the cell wall strong
-Surrounded by a sticky capsule
 Reduces water loss, resists high temperatures, and helps keeps out antibiotics and viruses


Kingdom Eubacteria

Three common shapes of eubacteria
 Coccus (round)
 Bacillus (rod shaped)
 Spirillum (spiral) →rolling motion

Three common arrangements:
 Pairs (diplo)
 Clumps (staphylo) staphylococcus (groups of balls)
 Strings (strepto)


Kingdom Eubacteria classification

by metabolism:
 Autotrophic – make their own food
 Heterotrophic – must eat their food
 Most bacteria get their energy from sunlight (photoautotrophs), and chemical energy (chemoautotrophs), but can get it from hydrogen, sulfur, and iron

by oxygen requirements:
-obligate aerobes (need oxygen)
-facultative aerobes (without oxygen)
-others are obligate anaerobes (cannot live with oxygen)


Kingdom Eubacteria

Asexually: binary fission (do not need a mate)--> bacteria splits into two and each new bacterial cell contains the same replicated information
 Bacteria mutate more often because they reproduce so quickly and transfer antibiotic resistance. (increasing genetic diversity if some bacteria have different codes
 Gain new DNA by conjugation (transfer of plasmids) →horizontal gene transfer takes place (Pili is used to link two bacteria temporarily)


Kingdom Eubacteria diseases

 Caused by releasing toxins: botulism (toxin in botox; fatal at high doses), Ecoli (bad and good O157)

Antibiotics (get rid of bacteria)
o Bacteria can produce antibiotic substances as a form of chemical warfare
o Immensely valuable to humans
o May not be so valuable in the future because the bacteria adapt and become resistant


Kingdom Eubacteria unique

*Special because prokaryotes can live in a wider range of habitats than eukaryotes and are the earth’s most abundant organisms


Kingdom Archaea

small kingdom, hard to find
• Cell walls that lack peptidoglycan
• Inhabit extreme environments
• Reproduce: asexually
• Single celled (that we know of)
• Cell walls and membranes much more resistant to physical and chemical disruptions (because they live in extreme environments)
• 3 groups: euryarchaeota, crenarchaeota, korarchaeota

• Examples: thermophiles (inhabit in extremely hot environments)


Traditional vs modern classification

Traditional classification: morphology (Linnaean)
• Based on morphological traits
• Does not accurately estimate the degree of relatedness between species

Modern biological classification: Phylogeny
• Purpose: shows the degree of relatedness between species
• Allows for understanding of evolutionary history


-what are viruses?

o Noncellular
• Complete virus: Viron
• Purpose: to deliver DNA or RNA genome into a host cell
• An obligate intracellular parasite (no metabolic machinery of its own and can multiply only inside living host cells)

• Are small, infectious particles
• Contains genetic material in the form of DNA or RNA within a protein capsule
• No cytoplasm
• Cannot grow or reproduce on their own (needs host cell (Non-living))
o Once inside of the host, the DNA or RNA are injected/released and begins to overtake the cell
o Cell eventually makes copies of the virus to overcome host

Structures: DNA or RNA surrounded by proten coat


Viruses vs Bacteria

viral diseases more common (less vaccines than antibiotics)
*viruses replicate a lot quicker than bacteria
-->immune system fights off viruses
-Vaccines target immune system
*separate viruses/vaccines with bacteria/antibiotics (go after bacteria)
*bacteria do not need hosts


Viruses importance

Cause diseases
 In humans not the greatest, as most diseases can lead to undesirable symptoms even cancer
 In ecosystems, diseases control populations (beneficial)
 Cause diseases through injecting DNA or RNA into host cells within organisms and thus infecting the organism

Infection: one organism enters another and replicates in it.
Disease: when the activities of the “guest” interferes with the host’s normal functions
Own body cells, tissues, organs etc. being damaged, destroyed, harmed results in an abnormal state of function
 Ex: AIDS, measles, meningitis


Viruses classification

Based on shape, size, and type of genetic material (DNA or RNA)
• Classified into orders, families, genera, and species
• Can infect only a single host, single organ system or single tissue
o Ex. HIV infects only certain immune cells
• Viruses that infect bacterial cells are called bacteriophages
• Inject their DNA into the bacterium, and protein capsid stays outside


Viruses types

dormant and non-dormant (active)

Dormant activated during times of stress (i.e. herpes)


Cure for virus diseases

Vaccine: Mixtures that contain weakened forms (not small dosage) or parts of dangerous viruses
 Trigger a response by the immune system without causing infection
 This allows the body to react quickly when exposed to the virus again
 Allows body to be prepared and adapted
 “immunological memory”
 Some diseases are difficult to provide viruses for because the structure of the virus provides an obstacle, or the virus continually changes
 Ex. HIV, influenza


Benefits of viruses

 Lower the numbers of harmful bacteria – gene therapy
 Gene therapy is the method of treating disease in which genes are introduced into cells to replace, supplement, or repair a defective gene
 Use viruses to deliver drugs or genes to target cells
 Use viruses in gene therapy to target certain cells -->kill off cells that are undesirable
 Place drugs inside virus capsules or preplace viral DNA with DNA they want to insert into a host cell
*Taking advantage of viruses ability to hold onto host cells

-using virus capsule to deliver drugs: chemotherapy
-using virus to insert new copies of genes: genetic disorders (corrective genes)
-using virus to insert gene taken from one species to another species (genetically modified organisms, common in plants)



 Small infectious pieces of RNA (no DNA)-->a strand
 Smaller than any virus
 No capsid
 RNA does not code for any proteins
 Viroids are PLANT pathogens that can destroy entire fields of crops
 Interfere with RNA of the host cell



 Abnormally shaped proteins found in the brain and nervous tissue of infected animals
 When eaten by other animals, the prions enter the animals bloodstream and go to its brain
 The prions interact with normally shaped proteins and cause them to function abnormally
 Brains of affected animals are full of spongy holes
 Ex. Mad cow disease (BSE) or Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (CJD)


Kingdom Protist

(Simple) Eukaryotic organisms that appeared 1.5 billion years ago.

 Very diverse species leads to difficulties with classification.
 E.g., Classification based on nutrition:
 Animal-like
 Fungus-like
 Plant-like

o Reproduction: asexually and sexually (under adverse conditions)
Asexually: budding, binary fission, spore-formation


Kingdom Protist

 Have a nucleus and organelles bound by membranes
 Internal membranes likely developed from the folded cell membrane of an ancestral prokaryotic cell. This increased the cell surface area, allowing the cell to better exchange materials with its environment
 Necessary feature of large cells

Mitochondria and chloroplasts thought to have originated from Protists (own DNA within organelle)
 The process of endosymbiosis (absorption of little cell by larger cell)
 Single celled organism lives within the cells of another organism


Kingdom Protist
3 types

-metabolism (how get food and energy)
-uni or multi
-Other facts

• Heterotrophic.
• Predominantly unicellular.
• Lack cell walls
• Live in aquatic ecosystems, wet soil or fluids within a host.
• Some are parasitic.
• Causes sleeping sickness in Africa.
Ex: amoeba and paramecium

• Heterotrophic.
• Predominantly decomposers.
• Feed via endocytosis.
• Live in cool, damp habitats.
• Cannot exist in hot or dry places
-cell wall
Ex: water mould

• Contain chlorophyll.
• Autotrophic
• Photosynthetic.
-cell wall
Ex: euglena, algae


Kingdom Protist interactions

Protist interactions:
 Producers or consumers
 Photosynthetic producers are the primary producers in aquatic ecosystems
 Climate change is affecting many protists, including algae
 Aquatic temperatures are rising and water is becoming more acidic interfering with some protists’ ability to produce their outer shells
 Can live in colonies (consists of cells living together)
Ex: volvox (type of green algae)


Kingdom Fungi

•Major decomposers
o Cycling of materials/nutrients through biosphere
•Engage in symbiotic relationships with plants
o Mainly mutualism (both benefit)
o Commensalism (one benefits, other is not harmed)
o Parasitism (one benefits, other is harmed)

• Play a role in animal/plant diseases (spread disease)

• Involved in food (Ex: mushroom)
• Role in beer and wine production (ferment)→Yeast
• Involved in drugs (penicillin, anti-rejection)


Kingdom Fungi
-Live in what environments

-All Eukaryotic
-Primarily multicellular. (A couple single cellular (Yeast))

• Heterotrophic (saprobes). →eat dead organic material
-Secrete digestive enzymes on organic matter and absorbing the resulting breakdown products (called extracellular digestion and absorption)

-Sexual and asexual reproduction (reproduce at any time)
-Not photosynthetic

-Cell wall contains chitin
o Long strains of small stick like molecules that are close together *beetle shell is made of chitin
•Body of multicellular Fungi composed of hyphae: reproductive component of fungus (cobweb structure that spreads -->cannot be seen by naked eye)
oMass of branching, thread-like hyphae is known as mycelium
o Mycelium absorbs nutrients from food.
• Active reproductive part of fungus

• Inhabits in environments that are damp, moist, warm, room temperature (do not like dry places)

Classification: patterns of sexual reproduction


Phylums/divisions of Fungus (4)

Phylum Zygomycota: Spores in a case-like (square) structure (sporangium)

Phylum Ascomycota: Spores in a sac-like (circular) structure (ascus)

Phylum Basidiomycota: Spores in a club-like (rectangle) structure (basidium).

Phylum Chytridiomycota: Swimming spores (aquatic environments)


Kingdom Plant


All eukaryotic
All multicellular

Metabolism: autotrophs/photosynthetic

reproduction: sexually and asexually
Sexually: Develop from embryos protected by parental tissue. -->requires a male and female plant part

-cell wall: cellulose
-can survive in a range of habitats

•The earliest land plants may have evolved from algal-like organisms. (charophytes )

*since algae do not have cell walls contain cellulose and do not develop from embryos protected by parental tissue, they are not considered a plant


Kingdom Plant

-top and most important producers in an ecosystem
-All photosynthesize (Photosynthesis)
-Provide organisms with places to live
– Structural diversity: giving other organisms a place to live

-Used in Medicines
-Provide Wood
-Provide Paper products
-Food (no energy from plants, instead minerals and antioxidants)-->component of fibre

ex: trees


Kingdom Fungi
Phylum Zygomycota
*common name: moulds

• Spores in a case-like (square) structure (sporangium) -->can be spread because of airborne
• Most are soil fungi (near trees)
• Many are used commercially
• Include familiar bread and fruit moulds
• Many are parasites of insects
Example: Bread Mould (case-like fungi)


Kingdom Fungi
Phylum Ascomycota

– Spores in a sac-like (circular) structure (ascus)
– Many like yeast are USEFUL to humans (bread, beer, wine)
Example: Mildews, some moulds and yeasts

Penicillin mould: Alexander Fleming discovered that the mould releases chemicals, which inhibit bacteria growth

Yeast: Unicellular
important for bread, beer, wine industry
Asexual reproduction via budding: small cell forms on parent cell than is released
Sexual reproduction: less favourable/forms ascospores. -->remain dormant until conditions improve (because cannot thrive in environment so therefore go to sleep)


Kingdom Fungi
Phylum Basidiomycota

– Spores in a club-like (rectangle) structure (basidium).
– Include mushrooms, puffballs
– Most are decomposers
– Some for symbiotic relations with plants
Examples: Mushrooms, puffballs, rusts (cause disease to plants→dots on leaves), bracket fungi (grow on trees)

-Have gills that are made up of basidia (have thousands of spores)
-wind disperses spores


Kingdom Fungi
Phylum Chytridiomycota

– Swimming spores (aquatic environments)
-flagellated spores
– Most are saprophytes (heterotrophic)
– They can be single or multi-cellular


Kingdom Fungi

Asexual and sexual reproduction

Fungi reproduce both asexually and sexually by making spores
• Asexual used to produce spores via mitosis in sporangia (spore-forming chambers) at the tips of specialized haploid hyphae
• Unicellular: Asexual via budding
• Fragments of hyphae can grow into new colonies
• Sexual: fusion of two haploid nuclei produces a diploid zygote. Later on, a spore-bearing structure forms and releases spores that germinate and grow into a new mycelium

Bread mould example (from phylum zygomycota)

• Asexual reproduction:
• Sugar feeds mould
o Hyphae extends along surface and into food.
o Absorb water and sugar.
o Black sporangia form.
o Each contains thousands of spores.
o Spores dispersed via wind.

Sexual reproduction:
• Occurs under less favourable conditions (frozen)
• Two genetically different hyphae are produced.
• Upon contact a (zygospore) forms.
• Remains dormant until conditions improve.


Kingdom Fungi

•MUST be in a relationship with something else in order to function

-Mutualism (both species benefit from relationship)
• Ex: lichen (has place to live) and tree trunk (gets nutrients)
o Lichen: composite organism consisting of a fungus and a single celled alga or a cyanobacteria
• Mycorrhizae: a symbiotic relationship between mycorrhizal fungus and roots of a vascular plant. Fungus forms a mesh and colonize the plant's root system and create a network that increases the plant's capacity to absorb (increase surface area)
o Fungus takes up nutrients and shares them with the plant
o Plant gives sugar to fungus
-Commensalism (one species benefits without affecting the other organism) -->clown fish and anemone
-Parasitism (one species benefits and the other is harmed) -->ticks, lice


Kingdom Plant Types

Non vascular (byrophytes)
o Do not have xylem and phloem (not as tall)
o Ex: mosses, liverworts, hornworts
o Lack true roots, stems, leaves and vascular tissue
o Environment: moist
o *very short in size (cm) (due to lack of vascular tissues etc.)
o Reproduction: sexual (spores) or asexual (vegetative propagation: growth of new roots and shoots from extensions or fragments of a parent plant; form of asexual reproduction in plants)
• Can reproduce at the same time
-Sexual: requires water for sperm to swim to egg. They produce a sporophyte that releases spores (which germinate).

Vascular (tracheophytes)
o These plants are very well-adapted to life on land.
o Have xylem and phloem (vascular tissues)
• Conducting tissue
• Xylem: transports water and minerals
• Phloem: transports food (carbohydrates, glucose from photosynthesis)
• Allow for greater heights in plants (due to system)
-spore producing -->asexual and sexual reproduction (water release spores)
-seed producing-->pollen


Kingdom Plant

Types of vascular plants

Spore producing
Ex: club mosses, ferns, horsetails
• No flowers
• *all like water environments
• Asexual and sexual reproduction (need water)

Seed producing:
• Most successful plants on Earth.
• Due to specialized leaves, stems and roots.
• Sexual reproduction occurs via pollination. →require male and female
• Does not require water.
• Seeds withstand desiccation.
• Includes:
•Class Gymnosperms (conifers), Angiosperms (flowering plants)


Kingdom Plant sexual reproduction (seed producing vascular plants)

Requires male and female parts in order to be fertilized

o Pollen dispersed by wind.
o Pollen produces sperm when contact is made with seed cone.
o Sperm fertilizes ovules.
o Zygotes grow into seeds.
o Pollon from male blows into female pinecone -->however seed not always grow (must be pollinated by male first, then can grow)

• Ovum fertilized by sperm (from pollen).
• Zygote develops into an embryo contained in a seed.
• Seeds are enclosed in a fruit.
• Seeds must be released from fruit in order to germinate.
• needs to be fertilized by a male plant in order for seed to grow
• Seed fertilizer on grass forces sexual reproduction of plants (fertilizes seed)

Self pollination:
-anther (male)
-stigma (female)
When two touch due to wind, fertilize female

Cross pollination:
•Requires insect to take pollen from female stigma of one plant to the male anther of another plant

IN general:
pollen -->becomes sperm-->fertilize ovule-->ovule develops into a seed (zygote: fertilized egg: grow into seeds)-->seed is ready to grow (must be outside of fruit in order to germinate-->angiosperms)


Kingdom Plant

Reproduction for nonvascular plants and spore producing vascular plants

Require water
-sperm swim from antheridium (male reproductive organs) to archegonium (female reproductive organ) to fertilize egg.

• In presence of sperm and egg cell in order to sexual reproduce (need male and female plant)


Kingdom Animal

• #1 importance: dependency for survival →due to predator/prey relationship →every animal depends on each other
• Depend for Food
• Pollination: insects
• Pets


Kingdom Animal

• All heterotrophic, all multicellular, all eukaryotes (have membrane bound organelles, complex)
• Lack cell walls (plants, fungi, bacteria, archaea have cell walls)
• Specialized nervous & muscle tissue.
• Primarily sexual reproduction
• Undergo Aerobic respiration
o (require oxygen to survive)
• Specialized Cell Development
o Germ layers (layers of cells in a developing embryo)
• 3 simple tissues (ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm)
• Ectoderm gives rise to the skin and nervous tissue (outer)
• Endoderm gives rise to the inner lining of the gut and in some organisms the respiratory system (inner)
• Mesoderm gives rise to the circulatory, reproductive, excretory, and muscular systems (middle)
• * Only species on planet (gestation/development time is longàtakes time to develop)


Kingdom Animal

• Common ancestor: also colonial flagellated protist (700 million years ago) →choanoflagellates

Classified based on body plan (how body is organized)
o Features:
o 1) Body symmetry: asymmetrical (not symmetrical), bilateral (line of symmetry divide into two) or radial (cross lines can divide)
• Radial: starfish, jelly fish
• Bilateral: humans (not organs though)
• Early: asymmetrical →radial →bilateral (common)
o 2) Degree of cell organization: function independently or form tissues and organs.
• Some organisms Function independently without tissues and organs
o 3) Presence of a coelom (internal body cavity)-->skeletal system.


Invertebrates vs vertebrates

Both animals

-Invertebrates: do not have backbone

-Vertebrates: have backbone


Kingdom Animal

Simplest invertebrates (phyla)

Characteristics of each

Phylum Sponges (poifera):
o Most primitive animals. (oldest) →no tissues or organs
o All aquatic (freshwater) and mostly marine (sea/ocean).
o Sessile (cannot move)
o Simple, asymmetrical body plan.
o No mouth, digestive cavity -->have muscles and nervous system.
o Colourful
o Have pores
Reproduce asexually or sexually:
o Reproduce Sexually:
• Many are hermaphrodites: animal that produces both eggs and sperm
• (No mate, but have different sex organs)
o Reproduce Asexually: Budding (break away and grow into new sponges)

Phylum Cnidaria:
oRadial symmetry.
oCells organized into tissues.
o E.g., jellyfish, sea anemones and corals.
oDangerous group
• Sting by toxic chemicals (paralyze)
oMouth/anus leads to gastrovascular cavity→saclike cavity that functions in digestion and gas exchange in cnidarians and flatworms
• Where digestion, circulation and gas exchange occur.
oReproduction: Lifecycle mostly alternates between asexual sessile polyps and sexual free-swimming medusas.
• Asexual: polyps tentacles (some corals)
• Budding (forms new polyps)
• Sexual: Medusas (jellyfish)
• Produce small polyps via sexual reproduction
• Produce egg or sperm


Kingdom Animal
Protostome invertebrates

-all have bilateral symmetry
o Sense organs and nerve cells located at anterior end. (concentration of nerve cells at one end of the body)
oCoelom (fluid-filled body cavity).
o Ex: worms

6 major phyla:
1. Arthropods: not insects
-joint legged
• Segmented bodies. (put together in pieces)
• Exoskeleton (composed of chitin):
o A waterproof carbohydrate.
o Protects animal.
o Resists desiccation.
• Blood cavity.
• Have full respiratory and circulatory system (becoming more complex)
Class Arachnida
• E.g., scorpions, spiders, mites and ticks.
Class Crustacea
• E.g., shrimp, lobsters, crayfish and crabs.
Class Insecta
• E.g., fly, mosquito, beetles

2. Roundworms:
• Nematodes also known as roundworms.
• Scavengers in soil and found at bottoms of lakes and ponds.
• Some are parasitic.
• *found after rain

3. Segmented worms:
• Live in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments.
• Segmented bodies and a coelom. (slight skeletal system/rings)
• Segmentation allows for larger growth and enhanced locomotion (ability to move).
• E.g., Earthworms and leeches.
o *segmented: divided into segments

4. Mollusks
5. Rotifers
6. Flatworms:
• No coelom due to flattened body (have fluid but no skeletal system) -->very flat
• Marine parasites.


Kingdom Animal

linage of bilateral animals in which the second opening on the embryo surface develops into a mouth (first develops into anus)

Two main groups: phyla
 Echinoderms (starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers)→invertebrates
 Chordates (vertebrates)



Phylum Echinoderms: Marine animals
• Exhibit same embryonic development as vertebrates (same as us)
• Immature (not full grown) echinoderms take on a free swimming bilateral form, whereas as they mature they develop a radial form
o Start off bilateral, mature into radial
• Complete digestive system, simple circulatory system, no respiratory or excretory systemàlive underwater
• No head regionà nervous system circles the mouth and extend into the arms (as well developed system as human but smaller)



All Embryos Have the Following Features:
1. Notochord – dorsal supporting rod(almost like a spine) that is found in all embryos of chordatesàspinal chord
2. Hollow Dorsal nerve cord (parallels the notochord)
3. Pharyngeal gill slits – precursor to gills in aquatic animals, but lost before birth in terrestrial animals (first developed)
4. Post-anal tail
* Humans did have gills and post-anal tail when developing

Body plan:
• Bilaterally symmetrical (body symmetrical when divided in half)
• Ventral Heart (on one side)
• Coelom (skeletal system)
• Endoskeleton (internal skeleton) with muscles attached for locomotion (swimming, creeping, running, jumping, flying, etc.)
• Sexual dimorphism in most species (males and females have different appearances)


Kingdom Animal
Chordate Classes

• Class: Jawless fish Ex: hagfish, lampreys

• Class: Cartilaginous Fishes Ex: sharks, rays, skates
o Skeletons made of cartilage (flexible movement)

• Class: Bony fishes: Ex: trout, salmon, tuna (any fish with bone)
o Contain internal air sacs, called swim bladders, for buoyancy (lungfishes can also use them for Respiration)-->swim above bottom of water (float)

• Class Amphibia: Ex: frogs, toads, newts, salamanders, mudpuppies
o Water (first born) & land (terrestrial)

• Class Reptilia: Ex: Lizards, snakes, crocodiles, alligators, caimans, turtles, tortoises, and dragons
oSuccessful Adaptations to Terrestrial Life:
– Skin modified into thick scales to prevent desiccation;
– Breathing and gas exchange occur via lungs
– Kidneys secrete concentrated urine to conserve water;
o – Eggs are amniotic (have yolks) and have waterproof shells.
• Amniotic: reptile, bird, or mammal
• Amniotic egg: egg with internal membranes that allow the amniote embryo to develop away from water
• Yolk: animals are nourished by a yolk (increase the time that the egg takes to hatch)
• Allowed for greater organization of tissues (longer gestation period)
o – No larval stage
o – No larval stage
• Circulation:
o – Turtles, snakes, and lizards have a partial septum dividing ventricle, so 3-chambered heart functions more like 4-chambered heart;
– Crocodilians have a 4-chambered heart
o * land and water

• Class Aves: birds
o About 8,700 species.
o • Endotherms – generate own body heat (all other animal classes so far have been ectotherms – need to absorb heat from surroundings).
o • Oviparous, lay large amniotic eggs with hard shells, and young do not metamorphose.
Adapted to Life in the Air:
o Tetrapods (4 first limbed vertebrates) but forelimbs modified into wings for flight
o Deep, keel-like breast bone to provide arge surface area for flight muscle attachment
o Skin has specialized structures: feathers
o Bones are strong, but hollow to reduce body weight
o Breathing occurs via lungs, but lungs have several air sacs to provide buoyancy during flight
*can be flightless birds
• Feathers:
– Evolved from scales
– Down feathers for insulation
– Contour feathers for flight (provide lift and stability)

Class mammals


Kingdom Animals
Class mammals

•Class Mammalia:
o Ex: humans, dolphins, cat etc.
o Highest classification of specialty of all kingdoms and classes
o No scales or feathers (hair or fur)

Three groups of classification: order
1. Monotremes – a small group with exceptions to many of the mammalian “rules”.-->Not follow many rules
o Lay eggs
o Ex: platypus, echidna
2. Marsupials – the “pouched” mammals who have an abbreviated gestation. (Kangeroo)→live birth
3. Placentals – mammals who’s young develop inside a placenta for a complete gestation -->most mammals like humans, bears, bats etc.


Swim bladders
Down feathers
Contour feathers
Gastrovascular cavity

Amniotic: eggs that have yolk
Swim bladders: bony fish- internal air sacs for buoyancy
Endotherms: animals that can generate own heat
Ectotherms: animals that need to absorb heat (cannot generate own heat)
Down feathers: insulation
Contour feathers: flight, lift, stability
Oviparous: animals that can lay eggs
Gastrovascular cavity: Saclike cavity where digestion, circulation and gas exchange occur.




1) Species diversity
• Variety and abundance of species in a given area

2)Genetic diversity
• Variety in heritable characteristics in a healthy breeding population
• All different types of genes in the earth lead to species diversity
• Importance:
o Resistance to diseases
• Populations lacking genetic diversity are prone to disease than higher diversity
o Conservation of endangered species
• Take species from another population and add it in to introduce new genes

3) Ecosystem diversity
• Variety of ecosystem in the biosphere
o Ecosystem: result of biological, climatic, and geological and chemical ingredients in an area

More biodiversity a place is --> more chances are there for species to survive (sustainability). If one food source is being interrupted, having a wide biodiversity in that area will allow higher animals to survive through a different food chain route.


Topic on classification of birds/dinosaurs/crocodiles

Because of bird's distinct features→classified in own taxon class Aves
• Fossil evidence links them closely to a group of carnivorous dinosaurs and therapods (bipedal carnivores with feathers)
• Morphological and genetic evidence suggests that their closest living relatives are crocodiles (similar skeletons, scales→reptiles, four chambered hearts, care for young)

Birds and dinosaurs:
• Evidence of feathered species connection
• Archaeopteryx (early bird)

Characteristics of crocodiles:
• Only reptile with four chambered heart
• Same skeletal features shared with only dinosaurs and birds
• Care for their young

• Class Reptilia is not a clade without Class Aves
o Because two classes share a common ancestor (dinosaur)
o Because in same clade, which must include all the descendants of ancestors, including birds
• Alligators and birds both have air flows in a single direction through tubes
• Protein found in the connective tissues connects birds and reptiles to dinosaurs than respiratory system


Unicellular vs multicellular

• Organism that consists of 1 cell
• Do not have membrane bound organelles
• Have nucleoid
• Simple in structure
• Size very small
• Can exist in extreme environments
• Prokaryotic (typically)
• Ex: all bacteria, amoeba & paramecium (protist), yeast (fungus)

• Organism that consists of more than 1 cell
o Due to endosymbiosis (origin of eukaryotes): mitochondria and chloroplasts both contain own DNA (similar to DNA in bacteria), are surrounded by two membranes, very small
o Endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope may have been evolved from internal infoldings of the plasma membrane of an ancestral prokaryotic cell
o Mitochondria was engulfed by a larger primitive cell
o Chloroplasts lived in early eukaryotic cells (chloroplasts of green algae evolved from cyanobacteria)
• Complex in structure
• All Eukaryotic: have membrane bound organelles
• Size varies (not microscopic)
• Ex: all animals, all plants, most fungi, some algae


Importance of conifers

• Referred to as “softwood”.
• Accounts for 50% of Ontario’s forests.
• Canada supplies 20% of world’s softwood.
• A lot of soft wood, huge industry for Canada (contributing to deforestation) →pulp and paper


Angiosperms vs gymnosperms

Angiosperms have seeds encased in a tissue known as fruit; gymnosperms have seeds that are no encased

-->angiosperms most dominant group of plants


What is a seed? Plants

Seed: include a plant embryo, its food supply, and a tough, protective casing.

Gymnosperms: produce seeds in carrying out reproduction


Angiosperms vs gymnosperms

Angiosperms have seeds encased in a tissue known as fruit; gymnosperms have seeds that are no encased


Benefits and drawbacks from eubacteria

-cause diseases that control population numbers
-intestinal tract (E.coli in large intestine; help break down food i.e probiotic yogurt bacteria)
-commercial uses (food-->chocolate, soy sauce etc.)
-produce vitamin K and B12

-cause diseases (i.e. pathogens) that affect our food sources (crops, live stock)
-diseases pose a threat to immune system
-hard to get rid of (rapid reproduction)


Virus Reproduction

1) Virus invades organism
2) Once virus enters organism, virus attaches to cells
3) Virus injects own genetic information (DNA/RNA)
4) Virus takes over host cell
5) The Virus’s genetic information programs cell to make more viruses
6) When cell reproduces, it will make more viruses


Protists other info

Brown algae: marine multicellular algae Size: microscopic filaments to 30 m kelp

Plasmodium: protist pathogen that causes malaria


General characteristics of terms:

-photosynthetic (usually contain chloroplasts)
-cell wall

-lack cell walls

-live in damp/moist environments (not hot or dry)
-heterotrophic (mainly decomposers)


Main importance of:

-cause diseases (can be beneficial or harmful)
-diseases control populations, bring harm to food sources and body

-bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
-Original eukaryotes (early ancestors to plants and animals)
-share many characteristics of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

-decomposers (contribute to cycling of materials/nutrients through biosphere)

-producers (via photosynthesis; make up bottom of food chain)

-dependency for survival (rely on each other to survive)


Imperfect fungi

-fungi that have not been observed to reproduce sexually

Ex: Human Pathogens
• Feed on outer layers of skin
– No known sexual phases.
Example: Trichophyton rubrum
• Causes athlete’s foot.
• Lives in warm, damp places (floors of showers and pools).
• Symptoms: reddened, cracked and peeling skin; itching, burning and stinging
• *Fungus is doing its job by trying to get rid of dead material. The Fungus eats the dead skin


Complexity in Animals

Based on:
•Number of germ layers developed during embryo stage
•Presence of Coelom


Simple to complex animals

1. Sponges
2. Cnidaria
3. Flatworms
4. Roundworms
5. Rotifers
6. Mollusks
7. Segmented Worms
8. Arthropods
9. Echinoderms
10. Chordates


When talking about relationships on phylogenetic tree...

-look at distance between species: closer means that they have a more recent common ancestor and they share similar characteristics
-farther away lines mean that the two species have more different characteristics (each branch represents an evolutionary change)


Plasmid in eubacteria

single loop of DNA that carries antibiotic resistance information. It is separate from the nucleoid and is transferred between cells during conjugation.



Fermentation: is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases and/or alcohol.

Occurs in yeast and bacteria, but also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation.


Bacteria, viruses have the ability to...

Have ability to become dormant/inactive when environments are not supportive

-->explains why diseases appear gone, but then reappear again.


Purpose of releasing large quantities of spores and seeds etc.

To ensure growth and a new generation of the species.

Only a tiny fraction of the spores, seeds will germinate and grow successfully. Also, only some sperms will reach the egg (therefore need a lot of them)


Why is a coelom such a valuable feature?

Allows for the development of complex organisms and organs.

Coelom adds support, space and suspends the organs, allowing them to grow into very complex organs.


Effects of amniotic egg

• Allowed for greater organization of tissues (longer gestation period)
-egg with internal membranes that allow the amniote embryo to develop away from water
-egg has evolved into our current animal classifications (vertebrates and chordates, classes within chordates)


Evolutionary change types

Over time
Climate differences

o Change over time: similar characteristics, but look different
o Climate differences: certain characteristics altered to coincide with differences in climate area