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Flashcards in Cells Deck (32):
1

Cell membrane

protects and surrounds the cell. Allows certain materials to enter and exit the cell. It is often called the gatekeeper.

2

Mitochondria

Provides energy for the cell

3

Golgi bodies

Packages materials and secretes them to other cells.

4

Cell wall

Only in Plant cells. It is thick and rigid and made out of cellulose. It protects the plant cell.

5

Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough and Smooth)

Folded membrane that transports materials around the cell. Rough ER has ribosomes.

6

Chloroplasts

Site of photosynthesis. Contains chlorophyll which is a green substance that converts sunlight into energy.

7

Vacuole

Stores food, water, wastes and other materials. Plant cells have a larger vacuole.

8

Nucleus

Controls all cell's activities. Contains Chromosomes with DNA

9

Nucleolus

Found in the nucleus. Makes ribosome parts.

10

Ribosome

Makes proteins.

11

Nuclear Pore

Found on the nucleus and is a protein that allows information and materials to enter and exit the nucleus.

12

Lysosome

Breaks down food and digests down wastes and worn out cell parts.

13

Centriole

Responsible for cell division.

14

Cytoplasm

Not an organelle. Supports the cell and distributes food and oxygen around the cell.

15

Which structure is not an organelle?

Cytoplasm

16

Which organelle is not alive?

Cell membrane

17

Define Diffusion.

The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The concentration gradient exists.

18

Equilibrium

Equal amount of concentration.

19

Osmosis

Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane from a area of high concentration to an area of low concentration of water molecules. The water must be distilled.

20

Active Transport

Movement of particles up the concentration gradient from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. Extra energy is needed (ATM).

21

Facilitated diffusion

Proteins help move large molecules across the membrane by changing shape and speeding up.

22

Isotonic solution

Even amount of water molecules inside and outside the cell. Plant cell: flaccid

23

Hypotonic solution

Higher concentration of water outside the cell than inside. The water therefore flows into the cell causing it to burst. Plant cell: Turgid, Animal cell: Lysed

24

Hypertonic solution

Higher concentration of water inside the cell than outside. The water moves out of the cell making the cell shrink. Plant cell: plasmolysed, Animal cell: shrivelled

25

Endocytosis

Molecules moving into the cell.

26

Exocytosis

Molecules moving out of the cell.

27

Pinocytosis

Liquids cannot pass the cell membrane so the membrane makes a pocket by pinching it inward.

28

Phagocytosis

Solids are ingested into the cell.

29

Chromosomes

located in the cell's nucleus, chromosomes are a thread-like structure (star shape) made of mostly DNA

30

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid: a material found in the nucleus that contains genetic information (Genes). Chromosomes are made up of DNA

31

Genes

a segment of DNA that controls protein production. Most genes provide instructions for making proteins. Therefore, genes control the cell’s activities by controlling when and what proteins are being made.

32

Double helix

structure of a DNA model. Consists of ATCG
A: Adenine
T: Thymine
C: Cytosine
G: Guanine