Chemistry 11 Unit 1 Chemical Reactions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chemistry 11 Unit 1 Chemical Reactions Deck (18):
1

Types of reactions

-Synthesis

-Decomposition

-Single Displacement

-Double Displacement
--> acid-base and precipitation

-Combustion

2

Synthesis reaction

Reaction:
• Element (or compound) + element (or compound) → compound
• “2 things make 1 thing”
• A + B = AB

Predicting products:
- product is a new ionic compound
*check charges of both elements/or compounds and bond ionically
-*check HOFBrINCl

3

Decomposition

Reaction:
• Opposite of synthesis
• Compound → element (or compound) + element (or compound)
• “1 thing makes 2 things”

Predicting products:
-break compound (check HOFBrINCl + friends)
-break into its elements or compounds

4

Single Displacement

Reaction:
• Element + compound → element + compound
• A + BC → B + AC
• “Stealing boyfriend”
Predicting products:
o If positive element by itself, elements combines with negative ion, resulting in positive ion of original compound to be an element
o If negative element by itself, combine with positive element (leaving negative ion of original compound to be an element)
o Combine: ionic bonds
-*must check activity series or halogen series to see if the reaction is possible (may not be reactive enough)

5

Double Displacement

Reaction:
• All compounds in reaction
• AB + CD → AD + CB
• “boyfriends switching"
Predicting products:
+ switches with + or - switches with - (+#1 bonds with -#2 and +#2 bonds with -#1)
• Ionic compounds

6

Combustion

Reaction:
• Hydrocarbons: Chemical compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen only (CxHx)
• Combustion: burn in the presence of oxygen
• Produces oxides and energy (Heat) →must have fuel, heat, and oxygen for reaction
• Reactants: hydrocarbon + oxygen
• Products: Carbon dioxide (CO2) + water (H2O)
• Incomplete combustion:
- not enough oxygen present for a complete reaction. Products →Carbon + Carbon monoxide + Carbon dioxide + water

Predicting products:
-always CO2 + H2O

*exception: incomplete combustion
Plus Carbon and Carbon Monoxide

7

Acid-Base reaction

Also known as neutralization
-form of double displacement
-between acid and base

Products:
-salt and water (h20 or hoh)

8

Precipitation reaction

Form of double displacement
-two aqueous solutions form a low solubility compound and solid precipitate

9

Special conditions for single displacement reactions

-only occurs if the element is more reactive than the element it is trying to replace

Therefore: check the Activity series for metals and the Halogens Activity series:
F
Cl
Br
I

10

what are hydrocarbons

-compounds
-made out of carbon and hydrogen only
-CxHx

11

What are the steps of approach to handle a chemistry question (reactions)

-identify
-write formula
-balance
-check

12

Naming ionic compounds

• Name cation (remember positive goes first) using name appears on common ion chart (element name) →left hand side of periodic table Ex: magnesium
• Name anion (negative ion) using name that appears on common ion chart (ends with –ide)

13

Writing formulas for ionic compounds

1. Write chemical symbol of each element present
2. Write ion charge
3. Combine so a neutral charge is obtained
4. Simplify/reduce (if possible)

14

Varied oxidization states

o 1 more: add per-
o 1 less: change –ate to –ite
o 2 less: add hypo- and change –ate to –ite

15

Naming hydrates

• Write name for first part of hydrate (before dot) →ionic compound naming
• After dot: prefix based on coefficient of H2O and –hydrate
Ex: FeSO4 . 7H2O
iron (II) sulphate heptahydrate

16

Writing formulas for hydrates

• Write formula for first part of hydrate (before dot) →ionic compound formula
• After dot: use prefix to determine coefficient then add H2O
Ex: tin(IV) chloride pentahydrate
SnCl4 . 5H2O

17

Activity series of metals

Activity Series of metals:
• Use series only for single displacement reaction types
• Metal element is switching with another metal element
• If the metal element that wants to switch is lower on the series than the metal element in the compound, then there is no reaction (metal element is not reactive enough to displace)

18

Halogen series

Halogen Series:
• Single displacement reaction types
• For halogens switching
• If halogen is lower on the series than the halogen that is in the bond, then there is no reaction (halogen is not reactive enough to displace)