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Flashcards in Biology 1a Deck (61)
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0

Name 3 different food types needed for a balanced diet

Carbohydrates / fats / protein / fibre / calcium / vitamins / mineral ions

1

What two factors can affect your metabolic rate ?

Size / muscle mass / exercise

2

Eating too much leads to what ?

Obesity

3

Obesity can lead to what ?

Arthritis / type 2 diabetes / high blood pressure / heart disease / cancer

4

Lack of food leads to what ?

Malnourishment

5

What does a lack of vitamin C lead to ?

Scurvy

6

What does your lifestyle include ?

What you eat and do

7

How does bacteria make you ill ?

1. Damage cells
2. Producing toxins ( poisons )

8

How does a virus survive ?

They invade cells and reproduce inside them and then burst.

9

Why do you feel ill because of a viral infection ?

Cell damage

10

How does your body defend against invasion ?

Hair / mucus / skin / blood clots (platelets) / white blood cells in immune system

11

Name the 3 ways white blood cells defend against invaders

1. Consume them - white blood cells engulf foreign cells
2. Producing antibodies - antibodies lock onto antigen and kill the foreign cell
3. Antitoxins - These counteract invading bacteria

12

Explain vaccination

1. Small dead or inactive viruses are injected. Body produces antibodies to attack the antigens.
2. The antibody shape is memorised in memory cells. If you are affected again they can rapidly be produced before you are too ill

13

Advantages of vaccine include

Epidemics prevented / controlled many illnesses in the past ( eg. Polio, tetanus )

14

Disadvantages of vaccines include

They don't always work / can have bad reactions.

15

What do antibiotics help ?

Bacterial infections

16

What are the dangers of antibiotics ?

The bacteria can mutate to become immune to the antibiotics and therefore not be cured. This will survive and reproduce and won't be stopped. Can be deadly

17

What was Semmelweis' theory ?

He was working in a hospital where many babies were dying. He believed this was down to doctors carrying bacteria as their hands weren't washed. He made the midwifed wash their hands and saw that much less were dying from midwife than doctor. This is why we wash our hands !

18

What are the five sense organs ?

Eyes / ears / nose / tongue / skin

19

What is a receptor ?

They are a group I cells that are sensitive to a specific stimulus (eg. Light )

20

What does CNS stand for ?

Central nervous system

21

What is a neurone ?

Part of the nervous system that transmits information.

22

What is the route in which an impulse takes ?

Sensory neurone > relay neurone > motor neurone > effector muscle

23

What is a synapse ?

The connection between two neurones

24

How does a synapse work ?

Chemicals diffuse and therefore move across the gap. These set of a new electrical impulse in the next neurone.

25

How do reflexes prevent injury ?

They produce automatic instant responses to danger that is much quicker than hormones

26

Fully describe the reflex arc

Stimulus > receptor > sensory neurone > relay neurone > motor neurone > effector > response

27

What is a hormone ?

A chemical messenger which travels in the blood to activate target cells

28

Where is the pituitary gland ? What does it produce ?

The brain. FSH and LH

29

What do ovaries produce?

Ovaries produce oestrogen