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Flashcards in Physics 1b Deck (53)
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0

What are the four types of non-renewable energy resources ?

Coal
Natural gas
Oil
Nuclear

2

What are the renewable energy sources ?

Wind
Wave
Tidal
Hydroelectric
Solar
Geothermal
Biofuels

3

How does oil generate electricity ?

1. Fossil fuel burnt, converting chemical energy to heat.
2. This heats water and turns it into steam
3. The steam turns a turbine, converting heat to kinetic energy
4. A generator converts the kinetic energy to electrical energy

3

What are the disadvantages of wind power ?

Some consider them an eyesore
Sound pollution
No power when the wind stops so unreliable

4

How do wind turbines work ?

A generator converts the kinetic energy of the wind blowing the blades into electrical energy

5

What are the disadvantages of hydroelectric power ?

-Valleys flooded which damage environments
-People are moved out of their homes to make way for the dams
-High initial costs

6

What is a new way hydroelectric dams work when it's not raining so much ?

There is a second 'lower reservoir' and a pump which keeps the higher reservoir full

7

How do tidal barrages work ?

They are basically bridges built across an estuary that has turbines inside them, generators convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy

8

True or false- biofuels work in the same way as crude oil does

True - they heat steam which turns a turbine

9

What is geothermal energy ?

Water is pumped down deep under ground where the heat from the rocks turns the water to steam when it comes back up. Then the steam turns a turbine and then that turns a generator.

11

What is a major drawback of geothermal power ?

You need to be in very specific locations and it is very expensive

12

Other than burning fossil fuels, how are non renewable energy sources bad for the environment ?

-Coal mining makes a mess
-oil spillages damage sea wildlife
-nuclear waste is extremely dangerous
-nuclear disasters like Chernobyl
-burning any fuel gives off CO2 (causes global warming) and SO2 (causes acid rain)

12

True or False - non renewable set up cost are higher than renewable

Why ?

False - renewable energy sources need bigger power stations therefore cost more

13

What is carbon capture ?

Carbon capture is when you collect the CO2 before it is released into the atmosphere. It is then pumped into empty oil fields (caves underground) and therefore doesn't contribute to the greenhouse effect

14

Who distributes electricity to the country ?

National grid

16

What do step up transformers do ?

Increase the voltage so that it can be distributed across the UK - this reduces the current so there is very little power lost due to heating the wires.

17

What do step down transformers do ?

Bring down the voltage to safe usable levels

17

Why are some cables now put under ground ?

It is more reliable / unaffected by weather / minimal maintenance / hidden away

19

What is the amplitude of a wave ?

Height from rest position

20

What is wave length ?

The length of a full cycle

20

What is the frequency ?

The amount of complete waves passing a certain point in a second

22

What is a transverse wave ?

In transverse waves the oscillations are perpendicular (90 degrees) to the direction of energy transfer.

23

What waves are transverse ?

EM spectrum
Ripples on water

24

What are longitudinal waves ?

In longitudinal waves the oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer

25

What is the equation for wave speed ?

Frequency (Hz) x wavelength (m)

26

What is a reflection ?

What is the reflection of sound called?

Reflection is when a wave bounces of an object at the same angle of incidence.

Echo

27

What is the law of reflection ?

Angle of incidence = angle of reflection

27

What is diffraction ?

When a wave spreads out at the edges when they pass through a gap

28

If the gap is wider than the wavelength, what happens ?

Little diffraction

29

If the gap is slightly wider than the wavelength, what happens ?

Diffracts only at edges