Flashcards in Biology 5 - Ecology (B16 - B18) Deck (11):
What is an ecosystem?
The interactions of a community of living organisms with the non living (abiotic) parts of their environment.
What do organisms require to survive and reproduce?
Materials from their surroundings and other living organisms.
What is interdependence?
The idea that within an ecosystem, each depends on the next for survival so that the removal of one would affect the whole community.
What is a stable community?
One where all the species and environmental factors are in balance so that population sizes remain fairly constant.
Name 4 or more abiotic factors that may affect communities of organisms?
- Light intensity
- Moisture levels
- Soil pH and mineral content
- Wind intensity and direction
- Carbon Dioxide levels for plants
- The availability of oxygen for many aquatic animals.
Name 4 biotic factors that may affect communities of organisms.
- Availability of food
- New predators arriving
- New pathogens
- New competitors
Name 2 methods by which the distribution and abundance of species in an ecosystem can be determined.
Transects and quadrats.
How do plants compete with each other for light, space, water and mineral ions from the soil?
They have adaptions, such as the different types of tropism.
What do extremophiles have that enable them to live in environments with extreme conditions of salt, temperature or pressure?
Extremophiles have adaptions specifically tailoured to the extreme conditions in which they live.
Name 3 adaptions that some animals may have to live in their habitat.
- Blubber, a thick layer of fat that builds up under the skin, to keep warm for mammals in cold climates.
- Camouflage, for animals that must adapt to their predatory or evasive lifestyles.
- Efficient kidneys so that very little water is required for animals in hot climates.