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Flashcards in Biology and Biochemistry Deck (36)
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1

What are the two acidic amino acids called? What are their three letter abbraviations? What are their one letter abbreviations? What is the pKa of their functional groups? Please come up with a good way to memorize these!

The pKa of glutamate and aspartate's functional groups are approximately 4. These are also deprotonated under normal physiological conditions. (anionic at physiological pH)

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What are the three basic amino acids called? What are their three letter abbraviations? What are their one letter abbreviations? What is the pKa of their functional groups? Please come up with a good way to memorize these!

Lys pKa = 10 (cationic at physiological pH)

Arg pKa = 12 (cationic at physiological pH)

His pKa = 6.5 (somehow it is basic?) (possibly cationic or anionic at physiological pH)

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What are the seven hydrophobic (nonpolar) amino acids called? What are their three letter abbraviations? What are their one letter abbreviations? What is the pKa of their functional groups? Please come up with a good way to memorize these!

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What are the five polar (but not basic or acidic) amino acids called? What are their three letter abbraviations? What are their one letter abbreviations? Please come up with a good way to memorize these!

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What are the two Sulfur-Containing amino acids called? What are their three letter abbraviations? What are their one letter abbreviations? Please come up with a good way to memorize these!

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What are the one amino acid with its R group bound to its amino group called? What is its three letter abbraviation? What is its one letter abbreviations? Please come up with a good way to memorize these!

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What is ΔG⁰'? Why is it used? What is its equation? What does each symbol mean?

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What is the binding of two complementary strands of DNA into a double-stranded structure called? In contrast, what is the separation of strands of DNA called?

Anealing is the binding of two complementary strands of DNA into a double-stranded structure In contrast, melting or denaturation is the separation of strands of DNA.

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DNA gets wrapped around ________. Once DNA is wrapped around ________, the DNA and ________ complex is called a ___________. When multiple ______________ are packed next to each other, they are called __________.

DNA gets wrapped around histones. Once DNA is wrapped around histones, the DNA and histones complex is called a nucleosome. When multiple nucleosomes are packed next to each other, they are called chromatin.

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_______________ is highly complact DNA with histones, and ____________ is much less compact and has very high transcription rates when compared to ____________.

Heterochromatin is highly compact DNA with histones, and euchromatin is much less compact and has very high transcription rates when compared to heterochromatin.

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In eukaryotes, th efirst RNA transcribed from DNA is an immature or precursor to Messenger RNA (mRNA) called the _____________ ________ ____ (______). Processing events (such as addition of a cap and tail and splicing) are required for ______ to become mature mRNA. Since prokaryotes do not process their primary transcripts, ______ is only found in eukaryotes.

In eukaryotes, th efirst RNA transcribed from DNA is an immature or precursor to Messenger RNA (mRNA) called the heterogenous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). Processing events (such as addition of a cap and tail and splicing) are required for hnRNA to become mature mRNA. Since prokaryotes do not process their primary transcripts, hnRNA is only found in eukaryotes.