What are non-infectious diseases?
Diseases caused by body malfunctions, lifestyle or environment
Examples - cancer, heart diseases
What are infectious diseases?
Diseases caused by pathogens
Examples - common cold, food poisoning
What does an acute disease mean?
Develops quickly, symptoms lasts a short time.
What does a chronic disease mean?
Develops slowly and symptoms last a long time
What are the risk factors associated with coronary heart disease?
Poor diet (salt and saturated fat)
Lack of exercise
These damage blood vessels and lead to high blood pressure
What is a risk factor?
Things that increase the chance of you developing a disease is called a risk factor
What are the risk factors associated with cancer?
Exposure to sunlight
These are associated with increasing the risk of developing many cancers eg mouth, liver and skin cancer
Why are men more likely to develop heart disease?
Women have the hormone oestrogen which protects them against heart disease, men do not have this.
Why, generally, is there more men with respiratory conditions and more men that develop lung cancer in today’s world?
More men building/ mining - associated with asbestos etc.
years ago, before people knew about the health risks, more men were smoking
How is risk measured?
Risk = (number of people with disease at a particular time) / (the population of people who could develop the disease)
What is a disease?
An abnormal condition of an organism that impairs it’s function and which is accompanied by a set of characteristics and symptoms
(Not a physical trauma i.e. An injury
What are pathogens?
Micro organisms that cause disease. - bacteria, viruses, fungi and Protozoa
How do pathogens cause disease?
By penetrating an organism’s interface with the environment
- gas exchange system
- the skin
- digestive system
How do pathogens cause damage/disease to the human body?
- produce toxins that are harmful molecules, damaging the human body
- rupturing cells to release their nutrients
- breaking down cell’s nutrients for their own use - the cell starves and dies
- replicating inside the cells and bursting the cell when they are released
Prevention of disease methods - the gas exchange system
- goblet cells (line the trachea) secrete mucus to catch the pathogens
- hairs called cilia on the cells move he mucus to the mouth where it is removed
Prevention of disease methods - the digestive system.
Acidic conditions of the stomach kill the pathogens
Prevention of disease methods - the skin
Blood clots and dries to form a scab, preventing pathogens entering the bloodstream