Biology Ch. 5-7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology Ch. 5-7 Deck (81)
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1

what is the storage polysaccharide in plants

Starch

2

What is the storage polysaccraide in animals

glycogen

3

what is cellulose

polymer of glucose, most abundant compound on earth

4

what is the major component of plant cell walls

cellulose

5

what are insects, spiders considered

exoskeleton arthropods, structural polysaccharide

6

hydrolysis

releases energy in the form of glucose

7

proteins

chains of amino acids, consist of one or more polypetides

8

Four main important large molecules

Carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acid, lipids

9

What are macromolecules

huge, complex formed by similar molecules

10

What are polymers

long molecules consisting of many similar or identical building blocks

11

What are monomers

small molecules that are repeated in polymers

12

What are enzymes

macro-molecules that speed up the chemical reactions in cells.

13

When are enzymes important

dehydration and hydrolysis

14

What are carbohydrates

polymers of sugars

15

What is a monosacchride

Carbonyl and hydroxyl group, usually CH2O

16

Classification of Monosaccharides

location of Carbonyl, size of carbon skeleton, spatial arrangements of parts around carbon atoms

17

What does a Monosaccharide do in a cell

form rings in aqueous solution, nutrients the cell especially glucose

18

What is a Disaccharide

two Monosaccharides form a covalent bond from dehydration

19

Common Disaccharides

lactose and maltose

20

What are Polysaccharides

macromolecules, storage, building materials for structures that protect the cell or organism

21

Glucose Monomers (Starch)

stored energy (plants) Hydrolysis releases energy

22

Glucose Monomers (Glycogen)

stored in liver and muscle cells, hydrolysis releases energy

23

What is Cellulose

major component of plant cell walls and abundant organic compound on earth

24

Exoskeleton of arthopods are what

structural polysaccharides

25

Lipids

hydrophobic carbon skeleton and not true polymers

26

fats

formed by dehydration reaction, glycerol and fatty acids

27

what bond does saturated fats have

single bonds

28

what bond does unsaturated fats have

double bonds

29

What are Phosolipids

essential to the cell, make up cell membrane, hydroxyl group

30

3 hydrophobic polypetides

Valine, Phenylalanine, Alanine

31

3 Polar Amino Acids

Cysteine, Serine, Tyrosine

32

4 Structures Protein Levels

Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary

33

What is the Primary Structure

Sequence of Amino Acids

34

What is the Secondary Structure

Hydrogen Bonds

35

What is Tertiary Structure

Overall shape and interaction with chain

36

What is Quaternary Structure

Overall structure of polypetides

37

4 causes of Denaturation

pH, salt concentration, temperature, solvent

38

Two types of Nucleic acids

Deoxyribonucleic, ribonucleic

39

Classification of RNA

ribose, single strand

40

classification of DNA

deoxyribose, double stranded

41

Three important parameters of a microscope

Magnification, resolution, contrast

42

what microscope prep kills cells

electron microscope

43

what transmits the image on the electron microscope

a beam shooting in the electrons ( on surface)

44

5 things that all cells have

plasma membrane, cytosol, chromosomes, ribosomes, proteins

45

What are prokaryotic cells

DNA is membrane bound called nucleoid, no membrane bound organelles, smaller

46

What are eukaryotic cells

DNA membrane bound called nucleus, mitochandria, chloroplast, bigger

47

Surface Area of the cell

the larger the cell the smaller the surface area, the smaller the cell the larger the surface area

48

what is the nuclear envelope

double membrane, lipid bilayer

49

what do the pores do

regulate entry, exit of proteins and RNA

50

What is Chromatin

complex proteins and DNA within nucleus

51

What is the Endomembrane System

collection of membranes inside eurkaryotic cells or transfer vesicles

52

What are vesicles

sacs made of membranes

53

what is the endoplasmic reticulum

called ER, extensive network of membranes

54

Cisternae

tubules and sac membranes

55

Lumen

inside of Er cisternae

56

What are the two types of ER

Smooth and Rough

57

What is the Rough ER

makes proteins, glycoproteins, polypeptides grow within

58

Golgi Apparatus

stores and distributes products

59

What is the Smooth ER

makes lipids, detoxifies drugs and poisons, stores calcium

60

What is a stack of flattened membranes

Asternae

61

what is the function of lysosomes

speed up hydrolysis of polymers, carries out intracelluar digestion

62

What does Phagocytosis

eats a cell

63

Selective Permability

regulate the transportation of substances in and out of the cell

64

Fluid Mosiac Model

scientific model of the plasma membrane

65

why do proteins move slower the lipids

because of the size of the cells

66

what do cholestrol buffers do

prevent lipid movement at high temperatures, and prevent close packing at cool temperatures

67

Intergral Proteins

penetrate hydrophobic core of bilayer

68

Peripheral proteins

bound to the surface of the membrane and integral proteins

69

What are the 6 major functions of membrane

transport, cell to cell recognition, intercelluar joining, enzyme activity, signal tranduction, attachment to cytoskeleton

70

Transport function

movement of substances across the membrane

71

Enzyme Activity

Catalysts to reaction

72

Signal Transduction

receives chemical messages and relays to other side of membrane

73

cell to cell recognition

Recognize glycoproteins serving as ID tags

74

Intercelluar joining

form cell junctions

75

attachment to Cytoskeleton

maintain cell shape

76

nonpolar molecules

hydrocarbons,oxygen, carbon dioxide

77

two types of transport proteins

channel(aquporins) and carrier proteins

78

two modes of membrane support

passive no energy and active needs ATP

79

What is Osmosis

diffusion of water in the a selectively permeable membrane

80

What is Toncitity

ability for a solutions to gain or lose water

81

Three types of Toncitiy

Hypertonic, Hypotonic, isotonic