Biology Ch. 8-10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology Ch. 8-10 Deck (71)
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1

What are the two types of metabolic pathways

Catabolic and Anabolic pathways

2

Catabolic pathways

Break down complex molecules to simpler compounds. Releases energy for work in the cell

3

Anabolic pathways

Consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones

4

Energy

Capacity to cause change

5

Metabolic pathway

Series of chemical reactions that builds or breaks down a complex molecule

6

What is metabolism

Chemical process in an organism which produces, maintains and destroys by which energy is made

7

Kinetic Energy

Energy of an object in motion

8

Heat/thermal energy

kinetic energy associated with the movement of atoms or molecules

9

Potential energy

Energy of matter possess because of its position or structure

10

Chemical energy

Potential energy available for release in chemical reaction

11

What happens during the release of chemical energy

Catabolic reactions rearrange molecules, energy is released and the product has less potential energy

12

Thermodynamics

Study of energy transformations occurring in the collection of matter

13

Thermodynamics term
System:

Matter under study

14

Thermodynamics term
Surroundings:

Everything outside system

15

Thermodynamics term
Isolated system:

System unable to exchange energy or matter with surroundings

16

Thermodynamics term
Opened system:

Energy can be transferred between the system and surroundings

17

What is the first law of thermodynamics

Energy can be transferred me transformed but can not be created or destroyed

18

Spontaneous processes

Process occurs spontaneously without energy when it increases entropy

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What is the second law of thermodynamics

Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe

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Entropy

A measure of disorder or randomness

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Free energy

The energy available to do work

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ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

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ATP cellular work

Provides energy to the energy requiring processes

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How does ATP perform work

Transfers phosphate group to molecule.
In hydrolysis it completes the endergonic reaction

25

What three types of work does ATP perform

Chemical (endergonic reactions)
Transport (active transport)
Mechanical (movement of vesicles along cytoskeleton)

26

What is an enzyme

A macromolecule, catalyst, low energy need for reaction

27

Catalyst

Chemical agent that speeds up reaction with being consumed

28

Are spontaneous reactions fast or slow and what can be added to speed up the reaction

Sucrase enzymes and slow reaction rate

29

Activation energy

Energy needed to begin a reaction, also known as (Ea)

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Substrate

Reactant an enzyme acts on and forms enzyme substrate complex

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What happens at the Active site

Substrate bonds to active site of enzyme results determined by shape of enzyme

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Enzyme Inhibitors

Stop the action of enzymes
( competitive and no competitive )
( irreversible and reversible)

33

What are two cofactors

Nonprotein helpers and coenzymes

34

Nonprotein helpers

Helpers required by many enzymes

35

What are Coenzymes

Are cofactors that are organic molecules

36

Enzymes catalyze reaction

Substrate bonds to enzyme by weak interactions

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what happens when the substrate is binded

induces change of shape of the enzyme that weakens bonds to broken into substrate

38

Optimal conditions

favor the most active shape of the enzyme

39

Autotrophs

self feeders, produce food from CO2

40

photoautotrophs

organisms that use light as a source of energy to synthesize substances (producers of biosphere)

41

Heterotrophs

other feeders, consumers of biosphere

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Chloropast

in all green plants, site of photosynthesis

43

Chlorophyll

pigment inside chloroplast, absorbs light energy for photosynthesis

44

Stomata

microscopic pores in the leaves

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stroma

dense fluid within chloroplast

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thylakoids

interconnected membrane sacs

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Grana

stacks of thylakoids

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what are the two stages of photosynethesis

light reactions and calvin cycle

49

Light reactions

convert solar energy to chemical energy

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calvin cycle

produces sugar from CO2

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Photons

elementary particle of light, each has a fixed amount of energy

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Photosystem

complex pigments and proteins harvest energy

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light harvesting

pigment bound to protein

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Primary electron acceptor

molecule capable of accepting electron

55

what does the photosystem consist of

primary electron acceptor, light harvesting, reaction center

56

Two photosystems in chloroplasts

photosystem II and photosystem I

57

Photosystem II

discovered second functions first

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Photosystem I

discovered first and functions second

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Liner electron flow

flow of electrons through photosystems (key to energy transformations)

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Mitchondria

electrons extracted from molecules

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chloroplast

electrons extracted from water

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Calvin Cycle

uses ATP and NADPH to convert CO2 to glucose or other sugar

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Phase 1 of calvin cycle

carbon fixation- forms two molecules with three carbons and attaches CO2 to sugar

64

Phase 2 Calvin cycle

reduction- ATP add phosphate group to each molecule and donates NADPH

65

Phase 3 calvin cycle

regeneration of RuBp converts 5G3P in to RuBP

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celluar respiration

process by which cell breakdown organic molecules into O2

67

Redox reactions

are chemical reactions resulting in gain or loss of electrons

68

Glycolysis

splitting of glucose

69

where does glycolysis occur

in the cytoplasm, ATP is used to energize the glucose molecule

70

Krebs Cycle

completes the break down of glucose in the mitochandria, final CO2 is lost

71

Fermentation

2 ATP per glucose 2% efficiency