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Flashcards in Evolution Deck (90)
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1

Descent with Modification

Charles Darwin, species are descendants of ancestral species that were different from present day species

2

Evolution

change in genetic composition of a population

3

What does Evolution measure?

Change in allele frequency

4

What ship did Charles Darwin travel on?

The beagle

5

What did Aristotle classify organisms into?

Scale of Nature

6

Carolus Linneaeus

develop binomial naming system and Hierarchy

7

Hierarchy

Species – genus – family – order – class – phylum - kingdom

8

What was also part of Darwins ideas

fossils in different layers of rock

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Lamarck's Evolution

compared fossils to present day species and discovered line between them

10

Lamarck's Principle

use and disuse, inheritance

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Use and disuse

parts of an organism used a lot get bigger and stronger

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Inheritance

inheritance of these special characteristics

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What was flawed about Lamarck's Principle

acquired traits can not be passed down to the next generation

14

Natural Selection

individuals with certain traits leave more off spring than other individuals with out that trait

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Adaptations

Characteristics of organisms that enhance their survival and reproduction in specific environments

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4 Observations that led to natural selection

1. members in the population vary in traits
2. traits are inherited by off spring
3. Species are able to produce more off spring than the environment can support
4. many of these offsprings do not survive

17

Artificial Selection

Human modification of species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits

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Two summary of Natural Selection

-Over time natural selection can lead to increase matching of organisms and environment
-Changes in environment could lead to new species via natural selection

19

Evidence of Evoulation

1. Direct Observation of Evolutionary Change
2. Fossils can show evolutionary change over time
3. Homology
4. Biogeography

20

Law of Succession

Living relatives of fossil species

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Fossil Evidence

Law of Succession, Transitional Forms

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Homology

Characteristics present in ancestral organism are altered in its descendants

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Homologous Structures

Variations of structural theme present in a common ancestor

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Vestigial structures

Lost most or all of past function

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Convergent evolution

independent evolution of similar features in different lineages

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Evolutionary tree

diagram that reflects evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms

27

Cell Division

All cells must have come from another cell

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Why do cells split

Reproduction, growth and development, tissue renewal

29

Cell Cycle

Life of a cell from when formed to when it divides into two cells

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How does most cell division result from

Indentical sister cells, split DNA equally among two resulting cells

31

Two types of Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction, Sexual reproduction

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Asexual Reproduction

creation of genetically identical offspring from one parent

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Sexual Reproduction

creation of offspring by fusion of sperm and egg

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Binary Fission

Replication of DNA split into two daughter cells

35

Prokaryotes

Single long DNA molecule

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Eukaryotes

DNA packaged into chromosomes(made from chromatin DNA and proteins)

37

How are Chromosomes distrupted during cell division

long thin fiber when cell is not dividing, Chromosomes begin to condense after DNA replication

38

What are sister Chromatids

Pairs of indentical chromosomes

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Where are the sister Chromatids joined together at

Centromere

40

Centromere

Specialized region where two sister chromosomes are attached

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Phases of Cell Cycle

Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis

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Interphase

Cell growth and duplication of DNA

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Mitosis

Division of the nucleus, DNA

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Cytokinesis

Division of the Cytoplasm
in animals pinching of plasma membrane, in plants form of cell plate during telophase

45

What is 90% of the cell cycle

Interphase

46

what are the three Subphases of Interphase

G1 Phase, S phase, G2 Phase

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G1 Phase

first gap, cell growth

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S phase

Synthesis, Chromosomes duplicated

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G2 Phase

Second Gap, cell growth

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Miotic Spindle

FIbers of microtubles and proteins, moves DNA by shortening and lengthening the mircotubles

51

Centrosome

containing material to organize cells microtubles, in cell division it splits into two centrosomes

52

What are the Stages of Mitosis

Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

53

Cell Size

Cell divide when they roughly double in size

54

Restriction Point

check points in the cell cycle where the cell decides whether or not to proceed

55

Heredity

transmission of traits from one generation to the next

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Variation

difference among members of the same species

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Genetics

scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation

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Genes

hereditary units coded information, program the specific traits organisms develop

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Chromosomes

unit of heredity, where genes are located

60

Somatic Cells

those not associated with gamete formation

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Homologous Chromosomes

pair of chromosomes with same length, centromere position

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Diploid Cells

cell with two sets of chromosomes

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what does "n" stand for when referring to chromosomes

it equals number of chromosomes in a single set

64

Haploid Cells

Cell with one set of chromosomes

65

what is the life cycle

generation to generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organsim

66

Meiosis

Modified type of cell division it results in haploid cells

67

Cross Over

homologous chromosomes exchange sections of chromosomes

68

Independent Assortment of Chromosomes

Random orientation of homologous pairs during metaphase of meiosis

69

Chiasma

Region where nonsister chromatids exchange genetic material

70

Random Fertilization

sexual reproduction can lead to a large number of possible genetic combos

71

Three parts of Sexual Reproduction

Random fertilization, independent assortment of chromosomes, cross over

72

Pleiotropy

Gene codes has more than one Phenotypic effect

73

Epistasis

gene at one locus alters phenotypic expression at second locus

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Polygenic Inheritance

additive affect of one or more genes on a phenotype

75

Recessively inherited disorders

sickle cell, albinism

76

Dominantly inherited disorders

huntingtons diease and achondroplasia

77

what is the chromosome theory of inheritance

genes have location along chromosomes, undergo segregation and independent assortment

78

Nondisjunction

pair of homologous chromosomes do not move apart in meiosis I or sister chromatids fail to separate in meiosis II

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Monosomic

missing one copy of a chromosome

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Trisomic

an extra third copy of chromosome

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polyploidy

more than two sets of chromosome

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Triploidy

three sets of a chromosome

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tetraploidy

four sets of a chromosome

84

alterations to chromosome structure

caused by errors in meiosis or damaging agents cause breaking of a chromosome

85

Four types of changes in chromosome structure

deletion, duplication, Inversion, translocation

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XXY

male sex organs are small and some female body characteristics

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XYY

some what taller than average

88

XXX

indistinguishable from XX

89

Microevolution

evolution below a species level, change in allele frequency in a population

90

Macroevolution

evolution above species level, includes origins of new species level