Flashcards in Biology-Chapter 4 & 5 Deck (84):
States that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from earlier cells.
Are found in organisms of the domains bacteria and Archaea, known as prokaryotes
Organisms of the domain Eukarya- including protists, plants, fungi, and animals-are composed of this.
All cells are bounded by this barrier, which regulates the traffic of molecules between the cell and its surroundings
Jellylike fluid, cellular components are suspended
All cells have one or more of these, carrying genes made of DNA
All cells have this, Build proteins according to the instructions from the genes
Name for structures found in both prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells.
Plasma membrane, chromosomes, cytosol, and ribosomes
How is the nucleic region different from the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell?
There is no membrane enclosing the prokaryotic nucleoid region.
Eukaryotic cells have this, Membrane enclosed structures that preform specific functions, and prokaryote cells do not.
Which houses most of a eukaryotic cell's DNA, surrounded by a double membrane.
A prokaryotic cell lacks a nucleus, its DNA is coiled into a nucleus like region
The region of the cell outside the nucleus and within the plasma membrane
Name three structures in plant cells that animal cells lack?
Chloroplasts, a central vacuole, and a cell wall
Name two structures that may be found in animal cells but not in plant cells
Centrioles and lysosomes
What polysaccharide is the primary component of plant cell walls?
What function does the organization of phospholipids into a bilayer in water serve?
The bilayer structure shields the hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids from water while exposing the hydrophilic heads to water.
Phospholipids grouped together to form a two layer sheet
Fluid because the molecules can move freely past one another and mosaic because o the diversity of the proteins that float like icebergs in the phospholipid sea.
Animal cells that lack a cell wall, but most animal cells secrete a sticky coat called this. Fibers made of the protein collagen hold cells together in tissues and can also have protective and supportive functions.
What is the relationship between chromosomes, chromatin, and DNA?
Chromosomes are made of chromatin, which is a combination of DNA and proteins.
Within the nucleus, long DNA molecules and associated proteins form fibers called this.
A prominent structure within the nucleus, is the site where the components of ribosomes are made.
What is the function of ribosomes?
What is the role of mRNA in making a protein?
A molecule of mRNA carries the genetic message from a gene to ribosomes that translate into a protein.
Linked by this, transfer membrane segments between organelles
Includes the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, the golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacules
One of the main manufacturing facilities within a cells. Producess an enormous variety of molecules.
Refers to ribosomes that stud the outside of its membrane. Function is to make more membranes
Sacs made of membrane that bud off from the rough ER
Refers to the fact that this organelle lacks the ribosomes that populate the surface of rough ER
An organelle that receives, refines, stores, and distributes chemical products of the cell
What makes rough ER rough?
Ribosomes attached to the membrane
What is the relationship between the Golgi Apparatus and the ER in a protein-secreting cell?
The golgi apparatus receives proteins from the ER via vesicles, processes the proteins, and then dispatches them in vesicles
How can defective lysosomes result in excess accumulation of a particular chemical compound in a cell?
If the lysosome lack an enzyme needed to break down the compound, the cell will accumulate an excess of that compound.
A versatile compartment that can account for more than half the volume of a mature plant cell
Place the following cellular structures in the order they would be used in the production and secretion of a protein: Golgi apparatus, nucleus, plasma membrane, ribosome, transport vesicle.
Nucleus, ribosome, transport vesicle, Golgi apparatus, plasma membrane.
What does photosynthesis accomplish?
The conversion of light energy to chemical energy stored in food molecules
What is cellular respiration?
A process that converts the chemical energy of sugars and other food molecules to chemical energy in the form of ATP
Which are unique to photosynthetic cells of plants and algae, are the organelles that perform photosynthesis.
Are the organelles in which cellular respiration takes place, during cellular respiration, energy is harvested from sugars and transformed into another form of chemical energy called ATP.
A network of protein fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm. Serves as both a skeleton and muscles for the cell, functioning in support and movement.
Hollow tubes of protein
From which important class of biological molecules are the microtubules of the cytoskeleton made?
Compare and contrast cilia and flagella
Cilia and flagella have the same basic structure, are made from microtubules, and help move cells or move fluid over cells . Cilia are short and numerous and more back and forth. Flagella are longer, often occurring singly, and they undulate.
Are generally shorter and more numerous than flagella and more in a coordinated back and forth motion.
Propel cells with an undulating, whiplike motion.
Can an object at rest have energy ?
Yes, it can have potential energy because of its location or structure.
Which form of energy is most randomized and difficult to put to work?
The energy of motion, Chemical energy from food is converted to this.
Conservation of energy
Explains that it is not possible to destroy or create energy.
The kinetic energy of muscle movement is stored as this, the energy an object has because of its location or structure.
Is a measure of the amount of disorder, or randomness, in a system.
A type of kinetic energy contained in the random motion of atoms and molecules.
The molecules of food, gasoline, and other fuels have form of potential energy called this, which arises from the arrangement of atoms and can be released by a chemical reaction.
The amount of energy that can raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1'c.
Consists of an organic molecule called adenosine plus a tail of three phosphate groups
Explain how ATP powers cellular work?
ATP transfers a phosphate to another molecule, increasing that molecules energy
What is the source of energy for regenerating ATP from ADP?
Chemical energy harvested from sugars and other organic fuels via cellular respiration
How does an enzyme affect the activation energy pf a chemical reaction?
An enzyme lowers the activation energy
The total of all the chemical reactions in an organism
Proteins that speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by those reactions.
The energy that must be invested to start a reaction , it activates the reactants and triggers the chemical reaction
How does an enzyme recognize its substrate?
The substrate and the enzyme's active site are complementary in shape and chemistry
Selectivity is based on the enzymes ability to reorganize a certain reactant molecule which is called an enzymes substrate.
The entry of the substrate induces the enzyme to change shape slightly, making the fit between substrate and active site snugger.
Are substrate imposters that plug up the active site
The movement of molecules spreading out evenly into the available space.
What molecule is the usual energy source for active transport?
During protein production by the cell, secretory proteins exit the cell from transport vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane, spilling the contents outside the cell.
A cell takes material in via vesicles that bud inward
Cellular eating, a cell engulfs a particle and packages it within a food vacuole
Requires that a cell expends energy to move molecules across a membrane.
An animal cell shrivels when it is ___ compared with its environment?
The cells of a wilted plant are__compared with their environments?
The control of water balance
The solution with a higher concentration of solute is said to be this
The solution with the lower solute concentration is said to be this.
A substance that is dissolved in a liquid solvent, and the resulting mixed is called a solution.
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Substances that do not cross membranes spontaneously- or otherwise cross very slowly - can be transported via proteins that act as corridors for specific molecules. this assisted transport is called this.
The cell doesn't expend any energy for the diffusion to happen. Ex: diffusion of dye across a membrane
In passive transport, a substance diffuses down its concentrated gradient , from where the substance is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated.