Flashcards in Technology- Chapter 1 Deck (52):
Computations Big Ideas
Digitizing information, stored-program computers, transistors, integrated circuits, personal computers, the internet, world wide web, layered software
What was the big break through?
Getting a machine to read digital information
-First "production" application of digital information
-worked for U.S Cenus Bureau
- By hand-in year 1880-took eight years
-machine-in year 1890-took one year*****
What year was the WWW created?
What year was the Macintosh launched ?
What year was the Ethernet Developed?
They worked by having a metal roller that used a brush to poke a hole and then this makes an electrical connection. The electrical signal the goes on to further processing. The machine uses an odometer which separates the input into two stacks, then running the machine through once again to count them. This device is not a computer,
built out of wires, rollers, and motors.
Central processing unit
solved the rewiring problem by using a special device which preforms instructions stored in the computers memory
memory bits, applies a layered approach, in which programs at one level apply code for the more primitive operations from lower levels, and provide more advanced facilities for higher levels.
Advantages of software
Programs can be changed rapidly
programs can be more complex-( the complexity became a big problem with computers though)
computations are autonomous
ENIAC- Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer
First electronic computer, weighed 30 tons , contained 17,000 vacuum tubes***
Transistors were created by..
John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley- they received the nobel peace prize in 1947
What are transistors?
-Low power, meaning less heat
-small in size
-allowed for computers to become a lot less smaller but made for more complex CPU
How was memory made?
By stringing tiny magnetic donuts onto a grid of wire threads.
are monolithic blocks (chips) made of silicon and closely related elements in which both active parts like transistors and connective parts like wires are fabricated together in a multistep process.
Chip makers print the wires onto the chip, and continue to print layers that in total contribute to the overall circuit.
When holes are the glass layer printed has holes in it to allow wires to become connected.
Required for printing to specify the shapes of a layer
Complexity is cheap to manufacture but...
expensive to design
more powerful than ENIAC
-Named after Gordon Moore- Intel chairman
-increased process of chips due to silicon foundries
-personal computers came of this advancement
The first personal machine
-Was made in 1973 at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center
-Introduced the mouse and graphical user interface
What attracted people to buy a computer?
-games, email, word processing
-parents thought it would help kids with school work-caused a gap in technology in our generations
ARPANet-Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
-sent its first packet in 1969
-networks connected together
-used protocol called TCP ( Transmission Control Protocol) / IP ( Internet Protocol)
-First used for army use**
Main original use of internet was for
Emailing and transferring files
Where everyone could access the documents, images, and other resources of CERN ( Central European Research Networking).
HTTP Protocol -Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
Your browser ( the client) and the host ( the web server) know exactly how to interact: what's requested and what will be returned, and how, and in what format.
When developing software and content it is crucial to have..
TCIP/IP and HTTP
***The first widely used web browser, got its name because it handled several of the protocols competing at the start.
The grandchild of Mosaic
Referred to programs whose logic was incomprehensibly knotted like a pile of spaghetti.
Key points about layered software development are..
-programmers can use the software in these boxes before even knowing how they work.
-More boxes will be included as technology advances
-It becomes more and more complex with the programers
le mot juste
the right phrase or word
You are able to communicate with a tech support staffer using email, chat or phone or the help button.
Why have computers become so cheaper and smaller?
The Moore's law effect and the market is huge which motivates innovation
Includes the CPU, a small amount of memory called a cache, and is connected to some input and/or output devices.
A processor specialized to be part of other systems, though its found everywhere these days. Advanced RISC( Reduced Instruction-Set Computer) Machine
A collective term for programs, the instructions computers perform to implement applications. Software instructs the computer hardware by providing the steps needed to perform a task.
Instructing an agent to perform some function or action by giving a step by step process
Anything that can follow the instructions
To start a computer
To restart a computer
A precise and systematic method for producing a specified result
Five characteristics of an Algorithm
input specified,output specified,definite, effective, finite
To remove the basic concept, idea, or process from a situation
The removed concept id usually expressed in another, more succinct and usually more general form. ex: a car
To express an idea, concept, or process that applies to many situations
The statement that sums up that idea.
To apply what we know about how a device or a system works to simplify its use
An aid for remembering something