Biology: Chapter 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology: Chapter 5 Deck (41):
1

cell cycle

the regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in eukaryotic cells

2

mitosis

the division of the cell nucleus and its contents

3

cytokinesis

the process that divides the cell cytoplasm

4

lifespan of a skin cell

2 weeks

5

lifespan of a red blood cell

4 months

6

lifespan of a liver cell

300-500 days

7

lifespan of the internal lining of the intestine

4-5 days

8

lifespan of the muscle and other tissue of the intestine

16 years

9

Gap 1 (G1)

first stage of cell cycle; cell carries out normal functions; cell spends most of time in this stage

10

Synthesis (S)

second stage of cell cycle; cell makes copy of nuclear DNA

11

Gap 2 (G2)

third stage of cell cycle; cell continues normal functions and additional growth occurs

12

chromosome

one long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes along with regulatory information

13

histone

protein that organizes chromosomes and around which DNA wraps

14

chromatin

loos combination of DNA and proteins

15

chromatid

one half of a duplicated chromosome

16

centromere

a region of the condensed chromosome that looks pinched

17

telomere

structures formed at the ends of DNA which are made of repeating nucleotides that do not form genes

18

prophase

chromosomes condense and spindle fibers form

19

metaphase

chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

20

anaphase

sister chromatids separate to opposite sides of the cell

21

telophase

new nuclei form and chromosomes begin to uncoil

22

growth factor

broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division

23

apoptosis

programmed cell death

24

cancer

class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division

25

benign

cancer cells remained clustered together

26

malignant

cancer cells break away or mestasize

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mestasize

break away

28

carcinogens

substances known to promote or produce the development of cancer

29

asexual reproduction

creation of offspring from a single parent and does not involve the joining of gametes

30

binary fission

the asexual reproduction of a single-celled organism by division into two roughly equal parts

31

budding

small projection grown on the surface of the parent organism, forming a separate new individual

32

fragmentnation

parent organism splits into pieces, each of which can grow into a new organism

33

vegetative reproduction

involves the modification of a stem or underground structure of the parent organism

34

tissue

groups of cells that work together to perform a similar function

35

organ

groups of tissues that work together to perform a specific or related function

36

organ system

organs that carry out similar functions

37

cell differentiation

process by which unspecialized cells develop into their mature forms and fucntions

38

stem cells

unique type of body cell that have the ability to 1) divide and renew themselves, 2) remain undifferentiated in form, and 3) develop into a variety of specialized cell types

39

totipotent

stem cell that can grow into any other cell type

40

pluripotent

stem cells that can grow into any cell type except for totipotent stem cells

41

multipotent

stem cells that can only grow into cells of a closely related cell family