Biology: Semester Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology: Semester Vocab Deck (126):
1

Carry out the process of replication

protein

2

Bond nucleotides together to form a double helix and find and correct errors

DNA polymerase

3

Converts a gene into a single-stranded RNA molecule

transcription

4

Carries DNA's instructions and is a link between DNA and protein

RNA

5

Converts an mRNA message into a polypeptide, or protein

Translation

6

A sequence of three nucleotides that codes for a amino acid

codon

7

A DNA segment that allows a gene to be transcribed

promotor

8

A part of DNA that turns a gene "on" or "off"

operator

9

First examples of gene regulation to be discovered and has three genes that code for enzymes that break down lactose

lac operon

10

Mutation that substitutes one nucleotide for another

point mutation

11

Mutation that inserts or deletes a nucleotide in the DNA sequence

frame shift mutation

12

The science of naming and classifying orgnaisms

taxonomy

13

A two part scientific naming system

binomial nomenclature

14

American microbiologist who was the first to establish that archaea diverged from common ancestor they share with bacteria almost 4 billion years ago

Carl Woese

15

(-----) are not always the result of close relationships

Physical similarities

16

(-----) more accurately show evolutionary relationships

Genetic similarities

17

Classification based on common ancestry

cladistics

18

The evolutionary history for a group o species

phylogeny

19

A common method to make evolutionary trees

cladistics

20

An evolutionary tree that shares a common ancestor

cladogram

21

A group of species that shares a common ancestor

clade

22

Traits shared in different degrees by clade members

derived charactistics

23

May confirm classification based on physical similarities

molecular data

24

Use mutations to estimate evolutionary time

molecular clocks

25

Scientists estimate mutation rates by linking (-----) and (-----)

molecular data and real time

26

One of the largest groups on earth and is classified by shape, need for oxygen and diseases caused

domain bacteria

27

Have cell walls chemically different from bacteria and are known for living in extreme conditions

domain archaea

28

Any disease causing agent

pathogen

29

Made of DNA or RNA and a protein coat

virus

30

Made only of single stranded RNA, causes diseases in plants, and passes through seeds or pollen

viroid

31

Made only of proteins, causes misfolding of other proteins, and results in diseases of the brain

prion

32

Infection that causes the host cell to burst

lytic infection

33

Infection that does no immediate harm

lysogenic infection

34

Made from weakened pathogens, stimulates the body's own response, prepare the immune system for a future attack and are the only way to control the spread of viral disease

vaccine

35

Are poisoned by oxygen

obligate anarobes

36

Need oxygen

obligate aerobes

37

Can live with or without oxygen

facilitative aerobes

38

The amount of (-----) can differ between bacteria

peptidoglycon

39

Prokaryotes exchange genes during (-----)

conjugation

40

Bacteria may survive by forming (-----)

endospores

41

Allow plants to retain moisture

cuticle

42

Tiny holes in the cuticle

stomata

43

Allows plants to grow upright

lignin

44

Protects embryos from drying, wind and sun light

seed coat

45

An interaction in which two species benefit

mutualism

46

Two adaptations that prevent animals from eating plants

spines and thorns
defense chemicals

47

Grow close to the ground to absorb water and nutrients

nonvascular plants

48

Most common seedless nonvascular plants from the phylum Bryophyta

mosses

49

Not true mosses and belong to the phylum Lycophyta

club mosses

50

Occurs when pollen meets the female plant parts

pollination

51

Do not have seeds enclosed in fruit and are mostly cone-bearing and evergreen

gymmpsperms

52

Most common gymnosperms alive today and include pines, spruce, cedar, fir, and juniper

conifer

53

Gymnosperms in the phylum Coniferophyta

conifer

54

Flowering plants who belong to the phylum Anthophyta

angiosperm

55

An embryonic seed coat

cotyledon

56

Study of plants

botany

57

Explores who people in different cultures use plants

ethnobotany

58

The study of drugs and their effects on the body

pharmacology

59

(-----) from willow trees is used in asprin

salincin

60

Potent plant chemicals that contain nitrogen

alkaloids

61

Animals cells are supported by (-----)

collagen

62

Determine the position of cell differentation

Hox genes

63

Control early development

homeotetic genes

64

Have an internal segemented backbone

vertebrates

65

Don't have a backbone

invertebrates

66

From mouth first, anus second

protostome

67

First from anus and then the mouth

deuterostome

68

Have specialized cells but no tissue and are the mos primitive animals on earth

sponge

69

The oldest existing animals that have specialized tissues

cnidarian

70

Cnidarians are made up of two layers separated by a (-----)

mesoglea

71

Are simple bilateral animals who have a solid body and incomplete or absent gut

flatworm

72

Are diverse animals that have a complete digestive tract and one of three features: radula, mantle, ctendia.

mollusk

73

Have segmented bodies

annelids

74

Refers to repeated sections of an annelids body

segmentation

75

A fluid-filled space completely surrounded by muscle

coelom

76

Have bilateral symmetry and shed their outer skeleton to grow

roundworm

77

The most diverse of all animals

arthropods

78

Extinct bottom feeders

trilobytes

79

Live in ocean, freshwater streams, and on land

crustaceans

80

Specialized daggerlike mouthparts

chelicerates

81

Most live on land and have 6 legs

insects

82

Long bodies and many pairs of legs

myrapods

83

Lobsters and crabs that have 10 legs

decapods

84

Sessile filter feeders wrapped in a hard shell

barnacles

85

Have flattened bodies and 7 pairs of legs; pill bugs

isopods

86

Parasites found in a host's lungs or nasal passage

tongue worm

87

Largest group of chelicerates

arachnids

88

Have unwanted side effects

insecticides

89

Organisms that carry disease from one host to another

vector

90

Caused by bacterium carried by fleas

bubonic plague

91

Caused by a virus carried by mosquitoes

yellow fever

92

Caused by a protozoan parasite carried by mosquitoes

malaria

93

Caused by a virus carried by mosquitoes

West Nile virus

94

Have long body, four walking limbs, and a tail

salamanders

95

Only two groups of (-----) exist today

jawed fish

96

Include ratfish, a small group of deep-sea fish

Holocephali

97

First anmial to have four limbs, evolved from lobe-finned fish, and can live both on land and in water

amphibian

98

Have notochord, hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits and tail at some point in their life

chordates

99

Allow vertebrates to grow to large sizes and includes braincase, vertebrae, bones, and gill arches

endoskeleton

100

Hard plate that protects bony fish's gills

operculum

101

Have fan of bones in fins

ray-finned fish

102

Help fish swim higher or lower in water

swim bladder

103

Include sharks, rays, and skates

elsmobranchs

104

Legless, burrowing, tropical amphibians

caecilans

105

Jawless fish

agnatha

106

Protects and surrounds embryo and are found in reptiles, birds, and mammals

amnion

107

Sensory system that is sensitive to small changes in water movement; all fish have it

lateral line

108

Have paired rounded fins supported by a single bone

lobe-finned fish

109

Largest amphibian group and includes toads

frog

110

Almost completely waterproof container that prevents embryo from drying out as it develops

amniotic egg

111

Characterized by the presence of feathers

bird

112

Filtering units in the kidneys that clean the blood and produce urine

nephron

113

Organic molecules that work with enzymes and regulate cell functions, growth, and development

vitamin

114

Main source of energy for the body

carbohydrates

115

Lungs exhale (-----) and water vapor

carbon dioxide

116

Can be used to filter and clean the blood

dialysis

117

Necessary for growth and repair of body cells

proteins

118

Comes from plant foods and helps with elimination

fiber

119

Aids in digestion and helps digest fat and protiens

pancreas

120

Breaks down food into simpler molecules the body can use

digestive system

121

Moves food through the organs

peristalsis

122

Enzyme that breaks down food in the mouth and comes from the salivary glands

amylase

123

From the liver/gallbladder and helps digest fats

bile

124

Where water is absorbed and eliminated from

large intestine

125

Where most nutrients absorbed and digestion is completed

small intestine

126

Helps digest foods in stomach

HCl and pepsin