Biology: Chapter 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology: Chapter 6 Deck (36):
1

somatic cell

body cell that makes up most of your body tissues and organs

2

gametes

sex cells

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homologous chromosomes

two chromosomes, one inherited from the mother, one from the father that have the same length and general appearance

4

autosomes

chromosomes that contain genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of an organism

5

sex chromosomes

directly control the development of sexual characteristics

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sexual reproduction

the fusion of two gametes that results in offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents

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fertilization

actual fusion of an egg and a sperm cell

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diploid

a cell has two copies of each chromosome: one copy from the mother and one copy from the father

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haploid

a cell has only one copy of each chromosome

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meiosis

a form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells

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gametogenesis

the production of gametes

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sperm

male gamete

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egg

female gamete

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polar bodies

cells with little more than human DNA that are eventually broken down

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trait

distinguishing characteristics that are inherited

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genetics

the study of biological inheritance patterns and variation in organisms

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purebred

genetically uniform

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cross

mating of two organisms

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law of segregation

Mendel's first law; organisms inherit two copies of each gene, one from each parent; organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes, thus the two copies of each segregate during gamete formation

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gene

piece of DNA that provides a set of instructions to a cell to make a certain protein

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allele

any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a specific locus

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homozygous

two of the same alleles at a specific locus

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heterozygous

two different alleles at a specific locus

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genome

all of an organism's genetic material

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genotype

genetic makeup of a specific set of genes

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phenotype

the physical characteristics of an individual organism

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dominant

the allele that is expressed when two different alleles or two dominant alleles are present

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recessive

the allele that is only expressed when two copies are present

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Punnett square

a grid system for predicting all possible genotypes resulting from a cross

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monohybrid crosses

crosses that examine the inheritance of only one specific trait

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testcross

cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with a recessive genotype

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dihybrid crosses

crosses that examine the inheritance of two different traits

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law of independent assortment

allele pairs separate independently of each other during gamete formation

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probability

the likelihood that a particular event will happen

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crossing over

the exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis I

36

genetic linkage

genes located close together tend to be inherited together