Biology EOC (things I don't know) Flashcards Preview

Biology > Biology EOC (things I don't know) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biology EOC (things I don't know) Deck (111):
1

Describe an endoplasmic reticulum

Transports materials inside the cell

2

Describe a golgi apparatus

Modifies and sorts molecules made by other organelles, and distributes them to where they are needed

3

Describe a vesicle

They aid in the import and export of molecules

4

Describe a lysosome

Digests food and recycles organelles

5

Describe centrioles

Involved in cell division

6

What is a unicellular organism?

An organism made up of a single cell

7

Where are chromatids joined?

At a centromere

8

What is growth?

An increase in the size or complexity of an organism

9

What is the cell cycle?

A continuous process in which cells grow, make copies of their chromosomes, and divide to form daughter cells

10

What is a type of asexual reproduction in which the parent splits in two to form two identical daughter cells?

Binary Fission

11

What are the four phases of Mitosis in order?

Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase

12

Describe prophase

The phase of mitosis where the chromosomes condense and spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of the sister chromatids

13

Describe metaphase

The phase of mitosis where the spindle fibers move the sister chromatids to the center of the cell in a line

14

Describe anaphase

The phase of mitosis where the spindle fibers pull the sister chromatids apart that their centromeres and duplicate the parent chromosome

15

Describe telophase

The phase of mitosis where the spindle fibers disappear and new nuclear membranes and two new nuclear form around the chromosomes

16

What are the 3 phases of the complete cell cycle?

Interphase, cytokinesis, and mitosis

17

Describe interphase

The period of growth and DNA replication that occurs between cell divisions

18

What is cytokinesis?

The division of cytoplasm

19

What is mitosis?

The division of the cell nucleus, producing two new nuclei, each with a complete set of chromosomes

20

What is facilitated transport?

The diffusion of molecules across a membrane with the aid of a channel protein

21

What is a stimulus?

Any change that a cell or organism reacts to

22

What is a response?

A reaction to a stimulus

23

In what organelle is DNA found?

Nucleic acid

24

What is nucleic acid?

Where genetic information (info passed on from one generation to the next) is stored

25

Nucleic acids are assembled from units called what?

Nucleotides

26

A nucleic acid called deoxribonucleicacid is better known as what?

DNA

27

Describe a ribosome

The site of protein synthesis

28

What are subtractes?

The reactants that are affected by enzymes in enzyme-catalyzed reactions

29

What is an active site?

A place on the part of an enzyme where substrates bind
**

30

What are proteins?

Large organic ,molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and small amounts of sulfur

31

What is an amino acid?

A building block of a protein that contains a compound whose molecule contains at least one amino group and one carboxyl group

32

What is a peptide bond?

The bond that holds two amino acids together

33

What are lipids?

Organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and store food energy until needed

34

What are carbohydrates?

Organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 2:1 ratio

35

Which biochemical does Biuret's solution test for and how does it change?

Proteins (changes from blue to violet)

36

Which biochemical does Benedict's Solution test for and what color does the solution change to?

Carbohydrates (solution changes from blue to brick red and sucrose doesn't change colors)

37

Which biochemical does Lugol's Solution test for and what color does the solution change to?

It tests for some carbohydrates and the solution changes from yellow-orange to purple-black

38

What happens when you add Lipids (fats and oils) to a sheet of paper?

The paper changes from Opaque to transparent/ translucent

39

Where did an asteroid or comet collide?

An asteroid or comet collided with Earth in what is now the Gulf

40

What is an example of a Mass Extinction?

The mass extinction of 65 million years ago

41

What is an ecological succession?

When living things repopulate an area

42

What is an ecological succession?

When living things repopulate an area

43

What is a secondary succession? Give an example

It follows a disturbance that has wiped out most living things in an area, but not destroyed, covered, or removed the soil. Ex: after a hurricane blows down trees, leaving the soil behind

44

What is a pioneer species?

The first organisms to return to an area after a disturbance

45

What is a climax community?

The ecosystem reaches a stage in which it does not change much

46

What does burning fossil fuels cause?

Acid rain

47

What Pacific Island species has been wiped out by snakes that were introduced in the 20th century?

Birds

48

What is a decomposer? Give an example

Gets its energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms (Ex: Most fungi and many bacteria)

49

What is an energy pyramid?

Scientists show the energy loss between trophic levels in an ecosystem

50

Does each higher trophic level contain more or less organisms?

It contains fewer organisms as you go higher up the trophic levels

51

How much of the energy from one trophic level is passed on to the next level?

Only about 10% of the energy from one trophic level is passed on to the next trophic level

52

What is a trophic level?

Each feeding level (producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, etc) in an ecosystem

53

What is the correct order for the transfer of energy within an organism?

Producer > Herbivore > Carnivore > Decomposer

54

What is ATP?

Adenosine Triphosphate is an organic compound that transfers energy within the cell

55

What is ADP?

Adenosine Diphosphate is a chemical that plays an important role in energy transfer

56

What is the ATP-ADP Cycle?

A chemical cycle in which ATP is transformed into ADP and vice versa

57

What is cellular respiration?

A process that releases energy in the ell by breaking don food molecules in the presence of oxygen (to break down food for energy)

58

What is an aerobic process?

A process that requires oxygen

59

What is glycolysis?

A process that splits glucose

60

What is the Krebs Cycle?

A series of chemical reactions where pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide

61

How many ATP molecules does glycolysis make per glucose molecule?

It makes 2 ATP molecules per glucose molecule

62

How many ATP molecules does the Krebs Cycle and high energy molcules produce?

The Krebs cycle and highvenergy electrons produce 36 ATP molecules

63

What process doesn't require oxygen?

Anaerobic Respiration

64

What are products of cellular respiration?

Carbon dioxide and water

65

Where is the energy available to the cell stored?

In the phosphate tail of the ATP molecule

66

In light dependent reactions in photosynthesis, does chlorophyll require light?

Yes, chlorophyll requires light in the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis

67

What are products of cellular respiration?

Carbon dioxide and water

68

What are the products and reactions of photosynthesis?

Carbon dioxide + Water ---(Light energy)---> Glucose + Oxygen

69

What is photosynthesis?

The process by which plants, algae, and some other organisms use the energy of sunlight to make food

70

What is chlorophyll?

The green pigment in plants

71

What is cellular respiration?

Glucose + Oxygen ---> Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy

72

What are the reactants of photosynthesis?

Glucose and Oxygen

73

In light independent (dark reactions), do they require light?

No, light independent reactions don't require light

74

What are biochemical cycles?

They involve the movements of organic and inorganic chemicals through the lithosphere

75

What are reservoirs?

Places where various chemicals are stored and from which they are recycled

76

What is the water cycle?

The continuous movement of water through reservoirs in the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere (Ex: evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff)

77

What is transpiration?

The movement of water from plants into the air, usually through openings in their leaves

78

What do hydroelectric dams create?

Energy

79

Why do dams harm fish populations?

Because they can prevent them from reaching their breeding ground

80

What is the nitrogen cycle?

The continuous movement of nitrogen through each of Earth's systems

81

What is a key element in organisms and makes up of 78% of Earth's atmosphere?

Nitrogen

82

What is the Carbon-Oxygen cycle?

The continuous movement of carbon and oxygen through all of Earth's systems

83

What is responsible for converting gaseous nitrogen into nitrates and ammonia?

Bacteria

84

What is a behavioral adaptation?

Something an animal does that helps it survive

85

What is a functional adaptation?

An adaptation that is related to the way its body works

86

What is a structural adaptation?

An adaptation that is related to a plant's or animal's form or structure

87

What is the biosphere?

The region of Earth that supports life

88

What is population density?

The number of individuals of the same species living in a given area

89

What is exponential growth?

When a population doubles at a regular rate

90

What are density-dependent limiting factors?

A limiting factor that has more of an effect on large or crowded populations

91

What are density-independent limiting factors?

A limiting factor that limits the growth of a population regardless of its size

92

What happens in predation?

One species, the predator, hunts and eats another (called the prey)

93

What is the carrying capacity?

The largest population that an environment can support over a long period of time

94

What is a natural resource?

A product of the environment that is used by humans or other organisms

95

What is sustainable development? Give examples

Oe way to conserve vital resources such as land, forests, fisheries, air, and freshwater. Ex: Plowing land to prevent erosion, conserving water, and replanting forests with a variety of trees

96

What is DNA?

A large molecule found in a cell's nucleus that directs the assembly of proteins in the cell. It also determines what traits are inherited or passed down from one generation to the next

97

What is a nucleotide?

One of the chemical building blocks of a nucleic acid, it is made up of a phosphate, the sugar deoxyribose, and a nitrogenous base. Contains either adenine, thymine, guanine, or cytosine

98

What does adenine pair with?

Thymine

99

What does cytosine pair with?

Guanine

100

How do multi-cellular organisms grow?

By making more cells

101

What is the copying of DNA during cell division called?

DNA replication, during which the strands of DNA separate from each other

102

What are the building blocks of DNA?

Nucleotides

103

What is the result of DNA replication?

Providing new cells with a complete and identical copy of genetic material

104

What is a protein's job?

Providing new cels with a complete and identical copy of genetic material

105

Where are proteins assembled?

Proteins are assembled on ribosomes, which are organelles found in the cytoplasm

106

What does the RNA (ribonucleic acid) do?

RNA carrie information from the DNA to the ribosomes and uses it to make proteins

107

What are the 3 main differences between RNA and DNA?

RNA has a single strand of nucleotides instead of 2, RNA as Uracil instead of thymine, and RNA contains the 5 carbon sugar ribose rather than the deoxyribose found in DNA

108

What are the 3 main types of RNA?

Transfer RNA (tRNA), Messenger RNA (mRNA), and Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

109

What does transcription do?

Copies a molecule of DNA into a complementary strand of RNA

110

What is protein synthesis?

The entire process of constructing proteins

111

What is translation?

When the information is decoded and used to arrange amino acids into proteins (info is translated from nucleotides to amino acids)