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Flashcards in Photosynthesis Deck (58):
1

Define anabolic

Small molecules combined (ex:photosynthesis)

2

Define endergonic

Used to describe something that stores energy (ex: photosynthesis)

3

Where does the light dependent reaction occur?

In the thylakoid membrane

4

Where does the calvin cycle occur?

In the stroma

5

What are the 2 types of electron flow that occur in the light dependent reaction?

The cyclic electron flow and the noncyclic electron flow

6

What is another name for photosystem 1?

P700

7

What is another name for photosystem 2? What occurs in it (hint: a type of electron flow)

P680 and the noncyclic electron flow

8

What makes up ATP?

The nitrogen base adenine, pentose (5c) sugar ribose, and 3 phosphate groups

9

Where does photosynthesis occur?

In the thylakoid membrane, the stroma, and mesophyll cells

10

What is a stack of thylakoid membranes called?

A granum

11

Where are chlorophyll molecules located?

In the thylakoid membrane

12

What does chlorophyll have in its center?

Mg+

13

What type are plants that do photosynthesis?

They're autotrophs

14

What is a stroma and where is it found?

It's a pore in a plant's cuticle through which water vapor and gases (CO2 and H2O) are exchanged between the plant and the atmosphere. It's found on the underside of leaves

15

What do chlorophyll pigments do and how?

Chlorophyll pigments harvest energy (photons)by absorbing certain wavelengths and this makes plants green because the green wave length is reflected, not absorbed

16

What colors do chlorophyll absorb the best?

Blue-violet and red light best

17

What are carotenoids?

Pigments that are present in plants and are either red, orange, or yellow

18

What is oxidation?

It's a type of redox reaction and it's the loss of e-

19

What is reduction?

Reduction is a type of redox reaction and it's the gain of e-

20

What is the redox reaction?

It's the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another

21

What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis

6CO2+6H2O >>>>>light>>>>> C6H12O6+ 6O2

22

What is the ultimate energy source for all life on earth?

Sunlight

23

Where do plants store energy?

In the chemical bonds of sugars

24

How is chemical energy released during cellular respiration?

It's released as ATP

25

What is the last phosphate group in ATP bonded with?

A high energy chemical bond

26

What will breaking of the last phosphate bond from ATP do?

It will release energy for cells to use, form ADP, and produce a free phosphate group

27

What does ATP look like when it only has three phosphates?

A-P-P-P

28

What is the process of breaking of the last phosphate bond from ATP?

Phosphorylation

29

What are the products of the light reaction?

ATP and NADPH

30

What are the products of the Calvin cycle?

ADP, glucose, and NADP+

31

What is another name for the Calvin cycle?

Carbon fixation, or C3 fixation

32

What photosystem does the cyclic electron flow use?

Photosystem 1 (P700)

33

What does the cyclic electron flow generate?

ATP

34

Where do both the cyclic and noncyclic electron flows occur?

In the thylakoid membrane because they are both part of the light reaction

35

What photosystems does the non-cyclic electron flow use?

Photosystem 2 (P680) and photosystem 1 (P700)

36

What chain does both the noncyclic and cyclic electron flows use?

The electron transport chain (ETC)

37

What does the noncyclic electron flow generate?

02, ATP, and NADPH

38

ADP+P= ?

ADP+P= ATP

39

NADP+ +H =?

NADPH

40

Oxygen comes from the splitting of what?

H2O

41

What replaces the high–energy electrons that chlorophyll lost to the electron transport chain? (During the light reaction)

The energized electrons from water

42

What is released into the air when the light dependent reaction happens?

Oxygen

43

Where does the hydrogen go to during the light dependent reaction?

It stays in the thylakoid membrane after energy from electrons is used to transport them from the stroma into the inner thylakoid space

44

What re-energizes the electrons towards the end of the electron transport chain (in photosystem 1)?

Pigments in photosystem one uses energy from light to re-energize the electrons

45

What picks up the high-energy electrons and what does it become?

After the electrons become very high energy from the pigments in photosystem one, NADP+ then picks up these high-energy electrons along with H+ ions to become NADPH

46

What binds ADP and a phosphate group together and what do they produce?

ATP synthesis binds ADP and phosphate group together to produce ATP (ADP + P > ATP)

47

Approximately what percentage of plants on earth are C3 plants?

Around 80% of plants on earth are C3 plants, which means they use the Calvin cycle

48

Where does the Calvin cycle occur?

It occurs in the stroma

49

What's the analogy used to compare the stroma to the chloroplast?

Stroma is to chloroplast as cytoplasm is to cells

50

What does the Calvin cycle use as energy instead of light?

It uses ATP and NADPH from the light reaction as energy

51

What else besides ATP and NADPH does the Calvin cycle use?

It uses CO2

52

How many turns of the Calvin cycle does it take to produce 1 glucose molecule?

It takes 2 turns

53

How many ATP and NADPH does the Calvin cycle use in 6 turns?

It uses 18 ATP and 12 NADPH

54

What combines with what to create 12 three-carbon molecules? (In the Calvin cycle)

Six carbon dioxide molecules enter the cycle from the atmosphere and combine with 6 five-carbon molecules to create 12 three-carbon molecules

55

How many of what kind of molecules are removed from the Calvin cycle?

Two of the 12 three–carbon molecules are removed from the cycle

56

What are the 2 three-carbon molecules that are removed from the Calvin cycle used for?

There used to produce sugars, lipids, amino acids, and other compounds

57

What are the 10 remaining three-carbon molecules converted into?

What are they used for?
(All during the Calvin cycle)

The 10 remaining three–carbon molecules are converted back into the 6 five–carbon molecules, which are used to begin the next cycle

58

Define heterotroph

An organism that gets its energy from the food eats. Plants that participate in photosynthesis do not fall under this category