Flashcards in Photosynthesis Deck (58):
Small molecules combined (ex:photosynthesis)
Used to describe something that stores energy (ex: photosynthesis)
Where does the light dependent reaction occur?
In the thylakoid membrane
Where does the calvin cycle occur?
In the stroma
What are the 2 types of electron flow that occur in the light dependent reaction?
The cyclic electron flow and the noncyclic electron flow
What is another name for photosystem 1?
What is another name for photosystem 2? What occurs in it (hint: a type of electron flow)
P680 and the noncyclic electron flow
What makes up ATP?
The nitrogen base adenine, pentose (5c) sugar ribose, and 3 phosphate groups
Where does photosynthesis occur?
In the thylakoid membrane, the stroma, and mesophyll cells
What is a stack of thylakoid membranes called?
Where are chlorophyll molecules located?
In the thylakoid membrane
What does chlorophyll have in its center?
What type are plants that do photosynthesis?
What is a stroma and where is it found?
It's a pore in a plant's cuticle through which water vapor and gases (CO2 and H2O) are exchanged between the plant and the atmosphere. It's found on the underside of leaves
What do chlorophyll pigments do and how?
Chlorophyll pigments harvest energy (photons)by absorbing certain wavelengths and this makes plants green because the green wave length is reflected, not absorbed
What colors do chlorophyll absorb the best?
Blue-violet and red light best
What are carotenoids?
Pigments that are present in plants and are either red, orange, or yellow
What is oxidation?
It's a type of redox reaction and it's the loss of e-
What is reduction?
Reduction is a type of redox reaction and it's the gain of e-
What is the redox reaction?
It's the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another
What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis
6CO2+6H2O >>>>>light>>>>> C6H12O6+ 6O2
What is the ultimate energy source for all life on earth?
Where do plants store energy?
In the chemical bonds of sugars
How is chemical energy released during cellular respiration?
It's released as ATP
What is the last phosphate group in ATP bonded with?
A high energy chemical bond
What will breaking of the last phosphate bond from ATP do?
It will release energy for cells to use, form ADP, and produce a free phosphate group
What does ATP look like when it only has three phosphates?
What is the process of breaking of the last phosphate bond from ATP?
What are the products of the light reaction?
ATP and NADPH
What are the products of the Calvin cycle?
ADP, glucose, and NADP+
What is another name for the Calvin cycle?
Carbon fixation, or C3 fixation
What photosystem does the cyclic electron flow use?
Photosystem 1 (P700)
What does the cyclic electron flow generate?
Where do both the cyclic and noncyclic electron flows occur?
In the thylakoid membrane because they are both part of the light reaction
What photosystems does the non-cyclic electron flow use?
Photosystem 2 (P680) and photosystem 1 (P700)
What chain does both the noncyclic and cyclic electron flows use?
The electron transport chain (ETC)
What does the noncyclic electron flow generate?
02, ATP, and NADPH
NADP+ +H =?
Oxygen comes from the splitting of what?
What replaces the high–energy electrons that chlorophyll lost to the electron transport chain? (During the light reaction)
The energized electrons from water
What is released into the air when the light dependent reaction happens?
Where does the hydrogen go to during the light dependent reaction?
It stays in the thylakoid membrane after energy from electrons is used to transport them from the stroma into the inner thylakoid space
What re-energizes the electrons towards the end of the electron transport chain (in photosystem 1)?
Pigments in photosystem one uses energy from light to re-energize the electrons
What picks up the high-energy electrons and what does it become?
After the electrons become very high energy from the pigments in photosystem one, NADP+ then picks up these high-energy electrons along with H+ ions to become NADPH
What binds ADP and a phosphate group together and what do they produce?
ATP synthesis binds ADP and phosphate group together to produce ATP (ADP + P > ATP)
Approximately what percentage of plants on earth are C3 plants?
Around 80% of plants on earth are C3 plants, which means they use the Calvin cycle
Where does the Calvin cycle occur?
It occurs in the stroma
What's the analogy used to compare the stroma to the chloroplast?
Stroma is to chloroplast as cytoplasm is to cells
What does the Calvin cycle use as energy instead of light?
It uses ATP and NADPH from the light reaction as energy
What else besides ATP and NADPH does the Calvin cycle use?
It uses CO2
How many turns of the Calvin cycle does it take to produce 1 glucose molecule?
It takes 2 turns
How many ATP and NADPH does the Calvin cycle use in 6 turns?
It uses 18 ATP and 12 NADPH
What combines with what to create 12 three-carbon molecules? (In the Calvin cycle)
Six carbon dioxide molecules enter the cycle from the atmosphere and combine with 6 five-carbon molecules to create 12 three-carbon molecules
How many of what kind of molecules are removed from the Calvin cycle?
Two of the 12 three–carbon molecules are removed from the cycle
What are the 2 three-carbon molecules that are removed from the Calvin cycle used for?
There used to produce sugars, lipids, amino acids, and other compounds
What are the 10 remaining three-carbon molecules converted into?
What are they used for?
(All during the Calvin cycle)
The 10 remaining three–carbon molecules are converted back into the 6 five–carbon molecules, which are used to begin the next cycle