Flashcards in Biology Lab 1 Deck (28):
What are elements? Give 3 examples.
Substances that are made of only one type of atom.
Examples: gold, aluminum, iron,oxygen, carbon (anything on the Periodic Table of ELEMENTS) 🤓
The 4 most common elements in plants and animals:
Compounds are ________________________.
Substances made of 2 or more different atoms.
Examples: water, proteins, DNA, Steel, plastic
Hydrocarbons consist of_______________________?
ONLY carbon and hydrogen atoms bonded together to form molecules.
The first part of a hydrocarbon's name tells you what?
How many carbon atoms are in each molecule.
1. Meth = 1 carbon atom
2. Eth = 2 carbon atoms
3. Prop = 3 carbon atoms
4. But= 4 carbon atoms
5. Pent = 5 carbon atoms
The last part of a hydrocarbon's name tells you______________?
If the molecule has double bonds between the carbon atoms.
1. -ane (like in methane) = no double bonds (only single bonds).
2. -ene (like in butene) = 1 or more double bonds
Molecules w/ the same (iso) number of atoms, but a different structural formula.
How many isomers can PENTANE form?
Glycine. (Simplest amino acid)
CH#COOH must mean it's an acid
Glyceraldehyde ( monosaccharide)
Electrons in the outer shell of an atom.
1. 2 on first shell
2. 8 on 2nd shell
3. 8 on 3rd shell
When 2 or more atoms share electrons to form bonds between them.
Difference between a molecular formula and a structural formula
1. Molecular formula tells the number and name of each element.
2. Structural formula shows the single and/or double bonds between the elements.
Equation to find the number of hydrogen atoms per molecule if given the number of carbon atoms (for hydrocarbon's with single bonds (ends with -ane)).
(C x 2) + 2
(C = Carbon atom)
Can a hydrogen atom form double bonds?
No, because it only has 1 valence electron, so it can't form a double bond.
All living and non-living things are composed of ________________