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Flashcards in Biology Lab 1 Deck (28):
1

What are elements? Give 3 examples.

Substances that are made of only one type of atom.

Examples: gold, aluminum, iron,oxygen, carbon (anything on the Periodic Table of ELEMENTS) 🤓

2

The 4 most common elements in plants and animals:

1. Hydrogen
2. Oxygen
3. Carbon
4. Nitrogen

3

Compounds are ________________________.

Substances made of 2 or more different atoms.

Examples: water, proteins, DNA, Steel, plastic

4

Hydrocarbons consist of_______________________?

ONLY carbon and hydrogen atoms bonded together to form molecules.

5

The first part of a hydrocarbon's name tells you what?

How many carbon atoms are in each molecule.

1. Meth = 1 carbon atom
2. Eth = 2 carbon atoms
3. Prop = 3 carbon atoms
4. But= 4 carbon atoms
5. Pent = 5 carbon atoms

6

The last part of a hydrocarbon's name tells you______________?

If the molecule has double bonds between the carbon atoms.

1. -ane (like in methane) = no double bonds (only single bonds).

2. -ene (like in butene) = 1 or more double bonds

7

Isomers

Molecules w/ the same (iso) number of atoms, but a different structural formula.

8

How many isomers can PENTANE form?

3

9

Methane

CH4

10

Ethane

C2H6

11

Propane

C3H8

12

Butane

C4H10

13

Ethene

C2H4

14

Propene

C3H4

15

Butene

C4H4

16

Pentene

C5H8

17

Ethanol (alcohol)

C2H5OH

18

Acetic acid

CH3COOH

19

Glycine. (Simplest amino acid)

NH2CH2COOH

CH#COOH must mean it's an acid

20

Urea

NH2CONH2

21

Glyceraldehyde ( monosaccharide)

C3H6O3

22

Valence electrons

Electrons in the outer shell of an atom.

1. 2 on first shell
2. 8 on 2nd shell
3. 8 on 3rd shell

23

Covalent bond

When 2 or more atoms share electrons to form bonds between them.

24

Difference between a molecular formula and a structural formula

1. Molecular formula tells the number and name of each element.
2. Structural formula shows the single and/or double bonds between the elements.

25

Equation to find the number of hydrogen atoms per molecule if given the number of carbon atoms (for hydrocarbon's with single bonds (ends with -ane)).

(C x 2) + 2

(C = Carbon atom)

26

Can a hydrogen atom form double bonds?

No, because it only has 1 valence electron, so it can't form a double bond.

27

All living and non-living things are composed of ________________

Atoms

28

Hydrogen has how many electrons?

1