Biology Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

Biology > Biology Chapter 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biology Chapter 9 Deck (26):
1

Glucose + Oxygen ---> Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ---> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O

2

Aerobic respiration

Uses oxygen

3

Anaerobic respiration

Does not use oxygen

4

Aerobic respiration is divided into 3 main stages

Glycolysis, Citric acid cycle, and Electron transport chain

5

Glycolysis

Glucose is split into 2 molecules of glyceraldehyde phosphate, then these are turned into pyruvate. This produces 2 ATP and 2 NADH.

6

Glucose

6 carbon atoms

7

Glyceraldehyde Phosphate

3 carbon atoms

8

Pyruvate

3 carbon atoms

9

Where does glycolysis take place?

The cytoplasm

10

Acetyl CoA

2 carbon atoms

11

Citrate

6 carbon atoms

12

Oxaloacetate

4 carbon atoms

13

Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle)

The main chemicals are acetyl CoA, citrate, and oxaloacetate. This produces 2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2 FADH2.

Takes place inside the mitochondria.

Produces the CO2 that we breath out.

14

Electron transport chain

Produces most of the energy (32 ATP molecules)

Converts the NADH and FADH2 into ATP.

Takes place in the mitochondria.

15

Energy produced in stages

Electron transport chain - 32 ATP molecules
Glycolysis - 2 ATP molecules
Citric acid style - 2 ATP molecules

16

The electron transport chain works as a proton pump

Pumps hydrogen ions (protons) through the membrane, and only allows them back through a protein (ATP synthase) which makes ATP.

Uses oxygen to accept electrons at the end of the chain (the electrons combine with hydrogen ions and oxygen to produce water molecules)

17

Glycolysis

Cytoplasm - breaks down glucose to pyruvate - 2 ATP - 2 NADH

18

Citric acid cycle

Mitochondria - turns pyruvate into CO2 -
2 ATP - 6 NADH - 2 FADH2

19

Electron transport chain

Mitochondria - converts NADH and FADH2 into ATP - 32 ATP

20

Catabolism of food

Cells can use several organic molecules in respiration, not just glucose. Carbohydrates are broken down using all 3 stages of respiration.

21

Catabolism of food

Lipids are broken down to glyceraldehyde, so they go through parts of glycolysis, then the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain.

22

Catabolism of food

Proteins are deaminated (the amino group is removed) and then converted in acetyl CoA, which is used in his citric acid cycle, and then the electron transport chain (so they skip glycolysis)

23

Anaerobic respiration

Does not use oxygen

Only glycolysis can occur

Single called organisms (bacteria, yeast) can survive anaerobically.

Large animals (humans) build up on oxygen debt when anaerobic.

24

During anaerobic respiration, pyruvate builds up and is converted to

Lactate (lactic acid) in animals

Ethanol (alcohol) in plants

25

"Beer is proof that God loves us and wants us to be happy."

Benjamin Franklin

26

Respiration

A catabolic reaction that breaks down glucose to release energy (ATP). Energy is stored in the cell as ATP or NADH.