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Flashcards in Biology Lecture Deck (67):
1

How do protist eat

Some are autotrophs, some heterotrophs

2

Protist response to adverse conditions

Form cysts goes dormant create hardshell sinks to the bottom of the pond and wait for better conditions

3

Phylum amoebazoans

Rhizopoda=root foot
Have no flagella
Use pseudopod to move
Ex: Entamoeba histolytica causes diarrhea

4

Phylum foraminifera

Means little whole bearing
Amoeba in a shell white chalk like white cliffs of Dover England

5

Phylum Apicomplexa

Parasites of animals
Ex: plasmodium vivax causes malaria transmitted by mosquitoes

6

Malaria

Infects 3 million
kills 2 million

7

Walter Reed

Invented DDT
DDT he does not breakdown The environment
use stopped in the 1970s

8

Phylum Kinetoplastids

Zoomastiagophora
1-1000
Has flagella
Includes intestinal parasites of Fish and Amphibians

9

Trypansoma

Kinetoplastids that cause African sleeping sickness
Fatal if not treated
spread by tiesti fly

10

Chagas' disease

Kinetoplastids that can cause damage to the heart

11

Phylum Dinoflagellates

Have two flagella
has a transverse groove
can be bioluminescent
causes red tide and paralytic shellfish poisoning

12

Phylum Ciliphora

Ciliates that have cilia
Paramecium uses oral groove
Micro-sexual
Macro-asexual
Has binucleus

13

Phylum Bacillariophyta

Diatoms
Glass like walls
used as filters and abrasives
diatomaceous earth
rough enough to polish but not rough enough to scratch

14

Phylum Algae

Chlorophyta
May be single celled organisms (green algae)
or multi celled or very simple multicellularity
Brown algae
red algae

15

Volvox

Have daughter cells

16

Spirogyra

Each cell has a spiraling chloroplast capable of sexual reproduction

17

Simple multicellularity

Multi celled Algaes
celles interact but on a simple levels

18

Complex multicellularity

Coordination between cells communication via hormones
cell specialization division of labor

19

Kingdom fungi

Includes mushrooms puffballs earth stars and yeast
4 million years old non-photosynthetic decomposers
saprophytic
cell walls are impregnated with Chitin not cellulose

20

Fungal anatomy

Hyphae cottony thread just below or right at surface of the fungal body
mycelium all the strands together
fruiting body
fungal spores

21

Phylum basidiomycota

Club fungi important in the breakdown of wood
includes mushrooms,toadstools,shelf fungi,and earthstars

22

Phylum ascomyota

Sac fungi 30,000 species yeast produces carbon dioxide makes bread rise
puts bubbles in beer
also includes morels and truffles

23

Dutch Elm disease

Fungal disease when hyphae come in contact with their roots and it kills them

24

Chestnut blight

Fungus that killed saplings of the chestnut trees

25

Phylum Zygomycota

Includes Rhizopus stolonifer mold on the bread and strawberries

26

Phylum deuteromycota

Imperfect fungi includes predatory fungi includes fungi used to flavor cheese (penicillium)penicillium produces penicillin

27

Penicillin was discovered

By Fleming and zone of inhibition where bacteria stays away from penicillin

28

Aspergillus

Causes apergillosis, farmers lung
Looks like a big spiky ball

29

Dermatophytes

Athletes foot
ringworm
toenail fungus
Jock itch

30

Phylum lichen

A symbiotic relationship between a fungi and a photosynthetic partner not a plant single cell gets trapped in hyphae

31

Micorhize

A symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a plant route helps plants take up copper zinc and phosphorus

32

Plant pathogens

Wheat rust
Ergot on rye

33

Ergot

Ergot produces LSD ergot will make pregnant women go into labor or cause them to miscarry
will cause muscle tremors
ergot poisoning could be connected to the Salem witch trials

34

Kingdom Animilia

Eukaryotic
multicellular
consumers
nonphotosynthetic
have no cell walls most have muscles but not all have a digestive system usually undergo complex changes during

35

Asymmetrical

Cannot be divided in any plane and produce to mirror images

36

Radial symmetry

Can divide in multiple spots and produce mirror images usually tend to live attached to something example coral sea enemies

37

Bilateral symmetry

One plane to divide and and with 2 halves

38

Cephalization

Development of a head has sensory and feeding organs

39

Phylum Porifera

Sponges simplest of the animals asymmetrical stationary
live attached to a substrate.
Porifera have no tissue organ,nervous system,gut,muscles,circulatory system,at a cellular level of organization

40

How do sponges eat

Water is drawn in the ostia ran across choanosyle and out the Ostila used for support

41

Phylum Cnidaria

Means nettle like
These organisms have stinging cells includes jellyfish sea enemies,coral ,hydra
first animals to develop tissues
radially symmetrical

42

Polyp

Tentacles up
circular mouth in the middle
lives attached

43

Medusa

Tentacles point down mouth on the underside meso glia jelly layer

44

Stinging cells cnidocyte

Safety from firing is a chemical trigger they think it's amino acid

45

Box jelly

Extremely toxic found in Australian Shores causes extreme pain for weeks

46

Phylum Platyhelminthes

Means flatworms includes tapeworms planaria, Flukes
first to develop organs
first to be bilaterally symmetrical
First to develop a distinct head

47

Free living flatworms

Ex: planaria
Some live in water some live on land locomote through cutaneous gas exchange
have the first of the eyes,nerve chords and have no circulatory

48

Flukes

Parasitic blood/liver complex Life cycle often involve several host

49

Tape worms

Parasitic live in digestive track of some animals
long ribbon like body with repeated segments
segments break off and are released when eggs mature simple structure

50

Phylum Nematoda

Roundworms
have a mouth on one and anus on the other freshwater marine terrestrial parasitic 100 to 500,000 species

51

River blindness

Spread by the blackfly larvae clouds the eye and causes blindness nematode

52

Heart worms

Spread by the mosquito causes the heart to swell and clogs the chambers and valves dogs have persistent cough and are very lethargic

53

Hookworm

Larvate can go through your barefoot

54

Elephantitis

Nematode clogs lymph tissue causes massive swelling number one cause of lameness in some parts of Africa

55

Tricinella spiralis

Encysted larvae
Skeletal muscle fiber
Eat under cooked infected pork

56

Pin worm

Thread warm common infection in young children and teachers of the young lives in rectum causes itching

57

Phylum mollusca

Means soft
includes snails,slugs,clams muscles,oysters,octopi and squid

58

Functions of molluscs

Head\foot used to locomote and
nervous system visceral mass guts or organs
Radula tooth structure scrapes food into mouth is located at the junctureHead and visceral mass

59

Gastropods

Includes the slugs and snails if a shell is present it is a single spiraling shell terrestrial molluscs radula used for feeding

60

Bivalve

Clams oysters mussels to part hinged shell filter feeders radula lost

61

Cephalopods

Octopi squid move with their head
shell internalized or lost completely
all are predators

62

Octopi

Bite From a blue ring octopi will kill you
Octopi scuttle over rocks
head with grasping suckers
image forming eyes
beak that bite chunks out of you

63

Phylum Annelida

Segmented worms have organs,muscles and nervous system and is repeated in a series of segments along the body
Ex: earthworm leeches see mouse feather duster worm

64

Segmented worms locomote

Hydrostatic skeleton
Cutaneous gas exchange

65

Phylum Anthropoda

Largest phylum
Has an exoskeleton of chitin
First group with true legs

66

Why are arthropod so successful

Specialize limbs
Exoskeleton of chiton
I compound eyes multiple eyes

67

Kingdom protista reproduce

Asexually-binary fission
Produces clones
Can change to sexual reproduction if environment changes