Flashcards in Humanities Terms Deck (37):
Old stone 6million to 10,000 bce
Tribal hunter gatherer
Crude stone and bone tools
Cave painting and sculptures
8000 to 2000 bce
Farming food and food production
Polished stone and bone tools and weapons
Pottery and weaving
The birth of civilization
Latin word civitas meaning city, marked the shift from rural to urban culture. Transition from Neolithic village to more complex form of social, economic and political organization associated with urban life.
Writing evolved from counting. From tokens made of shapes being put in hollow balls to record shipments, to traders stamping wet clay to record the nature and amounts of the actual goods. Pictographs replaced tokens. Wet clay tablets were used with stylus made from reeds to make cuneiform.
Forces of nature, sun,wind, rain as vital and alive as inhibited by living spirits
Belief in many gods closely linked to nature and its forces
Belief in two warring forces; good and evil
A doctrine that identifies God with the universe or regards the universe to be a manifestation of God.
Mesopotamia literary epic
Gilgamesh a long epic poem recited orally for centuries, precedes the Hebrew bible who's hero probably ruled the ancient Sumerian city of Uruk. Two thirds God, one third man blessed with beauty and courage. Earliest form of literary work that deals with death or non being.
282 clauses engraved on 7 ft. High stele. First recorded law of Babylonian rulers. Most extensive and comprehensive to survive ancient times. Not easily changed, restricted individual freedom, safe guarded the basic values of community
Belief that divine power flowed from the gods to their royal agents. Pharaoh meaning great house represented heavens will on earth.
Old kingdom tombs
Royal burial vaults hidden within a series of chambers connected to exterior tunnels home for eternity filled with treasure written documents of everyday life, things needed for the afterlife.
Land was passed from generation to generation through them, some had to marry their brother because of this. Some had more economic and civil rights independence. Could read and write and calculate would go into business, oversaw textile production and shop keepers, midwives, musicians and dancers. Hatshepsut governed for 22 years.
The world visually based on our eyes perception. An approach that details the immediate fleeting aspect of the outward world.
Provides images which give notion, idea or concept that is intended, usually by simplification of figures actions to a few telling traits
The study Of human development before the advent of written records.
The heroic age
1200-750 B.C.E Dorians destroyed Mycenaen civilization. Story tellers kept stories alive by word of mouth. 9th century was when they were first transcribed. Iliad and odyssey. Iliad was during the Trojan war, Archaean (Achilies). The Odyssey, The Epic of Gildamesh
The Greek gods
Family of immortals
Greek gods were human like lived atop the mountains of Greece. We're not just.
The evolution of the independent city-state. Rocky terrain interrupted by mountains, valleys, and narrow rivers.
A government in which the people hold the power. Was on oligarchy a government controlled by elite minority's. Solon abolished the custom of debt slavery and encouraged members of lower classes to serve in public offices
Relaxation from toil. Located in Olympia, midsummer every 4 years. First game 776 bce 200 yard sprint (stadion). Wrestling, boxing, discus throw. In the nude. Winners received garland
Play every 2 years addressed the dynamic between the individual and the gods. Tragedy and comedy. By the 15th century greece was the Mecca for theater. Theaters were outdoors built into hillsides, held between 13-27 thousand people
A theory put forth by Plato concerning human perception. The men chained in the cave could only see shadows, but eventually saw them to be real since they could not move their heads
The classical style
Quest for harmonious order
Canon set of rules for determining physical proportion. To reach canon everything needed a module or standard of measurement. Made things more humanistic
Greek music and dance
Instruments were lyre like a harp, aulos flute some kind of percussion. Monophonic one line of melody. Dance was used for ceremonial rites and theatrical presentations.
The Hellenistic age
Lasted from 323-30 bce Alexandria replaced Athens. Made important advancements in geography, astronomy, medicine, mathematics.
The Confucian thought
Skeptics denied the possibility of knowing anything with certainty.
Cynics said spiritual satisfaction was only possible through renounced societal values
Epicureans taught happiness depended on avoiding all forms of physical excess
Stoics believed tranquillity of mind in a doctrine of detachment allowed them to accept life's circumstances
The Roman republic
Lower class had little voice in government, Roman senate controlled the laws. Introduced Latin language and Roman laws to provinces, built paved roads, fresh water aqua ducts bridges
After Julius Caesar power struggle between mark Antony and Octavious, Mark Anthony and Cleopatra joined forces . Octavian took over, the Augustus. During Augustus reign Christianity came about , he put an end to civil wars. Rome was ruled by military leaders
Was a great organizer, reformed and consolidated laws, regulated taxation, reduced debts, came up with the 365 day calendar,
Romes rise to empire
Senate was powerful, Rome was the watch dog to the ancient world, Romes army became powerful and overseas provinces became powerful also. Rich got richer, poor got poorer
Evolved out of practical need to rule a world state. First civil code twelve tables of law. Basic legal code for almost 1000 years. Acts of assembly and the senate and public degrees of the emperors.
Could own property, free to manage their own legal affairs, girls were educated before boys and could read and write. Some aristocratic women held public office. Musicians, painters, priestess, midwives, gladiators.
Used the arch, developed the aqueducts. First to use concrete amphitheater like the colosseum covered 6 acres, held 50,000
Roman art as propaganda
Sculpture 100 ft tall marble column erected in 113 bce by emperor Trajan to celebrate his victory over the Dacians. Arches and victory columns used for monumental gateways through which soldiers marched through carrying spoils of war. They also used them as public function advertising authority.
New grange Ireland
Sounds piled on top of another with a hole to put dead bodies in
Delmon were used to support passage great had winter solstice significance