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Flashcards in Humanities Terms Deck (37):
1

Paleolithic

Old stone 6million to 10,000 bce
Tribal hunter gatherer
Crude stone and bone tools
Cave painting and sculptures

2

Neolithic culture

New stone
8000 to 2000 bce
Farming food and food production
Polished stone and bone tools and weapons
Architecture
Pottery and weaving

3

The birth of civilization

Latin word civitas meaning city, marked the shift from rural to urban culture. Transition from Neolithic village to more complex form of social, economic and political organization associated with urban life.

4

Counting/writing

Writing evolved from counting. From tokens made of shapes being put in hollow balls to record shipments, to traders stamping wet clay to record the nature and amounts of the actual goods. Pictographs replaced tokens. Wet clay tablets were used with stylus made from reeds to make cuneiform.

5

Animism

Forces of nature, sun,wind, rain as vital and alive as inhibited by living spirits

6

Polytheism

Belief in many gods closely linked to nature and its forces

7

Monotheism

Belief in two warring forces; good and evil

8

Pantheism

A doctrine that identifies God with the universe or regards the universe to be a manifestation of God.

9

Mesopotamia literary epic

Gilgamesh a long epic poem recited orally for centuries, precedes the Hebrew bible who's hero probably ruled the ancient Sumerian city of Uruk. Two thirds God, one third man blessed with beauty and courage. Earliest form of literary work that deals with death or non being.

10

Hammurabi's law

282 clauses engraved on 7 ft. High stele. First recorded law of Babylonian rulers. Most extensive and comprehensive to survive ancient times. Not easily changed, restricted individual freedom, safe guarded the basic values of community

11

Egyptian theocracy

Belief that divine power flowed from the gods to their royal agents. Pharaoh meaning great house represented heavens will on earth.

12

Old kingdom tombs

Royal burial vaults hidden within a series of chambers connected to exterior tunnels home for eternity filled with treasure written documents of everyday life, things needed for the afterlife.

13

Egyptian women

Land was passed from generation to generation through them, some had to marry their brother because of this. Some had more economic and civil rights independence. Could read and write and calculate would go into business, oversaw textile production and shop keepers, midwives, musicians and dancers. Hatshepsut governed for 22 years.

14

Perceptual art

The world visually based on our eyes perception. An approach that details the immediate fleeting aspect of the outward world.

15

Conceptual art

Provides images which give notion, idea or concept that is intended, usually by simplification of figures actions to a few telling traits

16

Prehistory

The study Of human development before the advent of written records.

17

The heroic age

1200-750 B.C.E Dorians destroyed Mycenaen civilization. Story tellers kept stories alive by word of mouth. 9th century was when they were first transcribed. Iliad and odyssey. Iliad was during the Trojan war, Archaean (Achilies). The Odyssey, The Epic of Gildamesh

18

The Greek gods

Family of immortals
Greek gods were human like lived atop the mountains of Greece. We're not just.

19

The polis

The evolution of the independent city-state. Rocky terrain interrupted by mountains, valleys, and narrow rivers.

20

Athenian democracy

A government in which the people hold the power. Was on oligarchy a government controlled by elite minority's. Solon abolished the custom of debt slavery and encouraged members of lower classes to serve in public offices

21

Olympic Games

Relaxation from toil. Located in Olympia, midsummer every 4 years. First game 776 bce 200 yard sprint (stadion). Wrestling, boxing, discus throw. In the nude. Winners received garland

22

Greek drama

Play every 2 years addressed the dynamic between the individual and the gods. Tragedy and comedy. By the 15th century greece was the Mecca for theater. Theaters were outdoors built into hillsides, held between 13-27 thousand people

23

Allegory cave

A theory put forth by Plato concerning human perception. The men chained in the cave could only see shadows, but eventually saw them to be real since they could not move their heads

24

The classical style

Quest for harmonious order
Canon set of rules for determining physical proportion. To reach canon everything needed a module or standard of measurement. Made things more humanistic

25

Greek music and dance

Instruments were lyre like a harp, aulos flute some kind of percussion. Monophonic one line of melody. Dance was used for ceremonial rites and theatrical presentations.

26

The Hellenistic age

Lasted from 323-30 bce Alexandria replaced Athens. Made important advancements in geography, astronomy, medicine, mathematics.

27

The Confucian thought

Skeptics denied the possibility of knowing anything with certainty.
Cynics said spiritual satisfaction was only possible through renounced societal values
Epicureans taught happiness depended on avoiding all forms of physical excess
Stoics believed tranquillity of mind in a doctrine of detachment allowed them to accept life's circumstances

28

The Roman republic

Lower class had little voice in government, Roman senate controlled the laws. Introduced Latin language and Roman laws to provinces, built paved roads, fresh water aqua ducts bridges

29

Pax Romana

After Julius Caesar power struggle between mark Antony and Octavious, Mark Anthony and Cleopatra joined forces . Octavian took over, the Augustus. During Augustus reign Christianity came about , he put an end to civil wars. Rome was ruled by military leaders

30

Caesars Rome

Was a great organizer, reformed and consolidated laws, regulated taxation, reduced debts, came up with the 365 day calendar,

31

Romes rise to empire

Senate was powerful, Rome was the watch dog to the ancient world, Romes army became powerful and overseas provinces became powerful also. Rich got richer, poor got poorer

32

Roman law

Evolved out of practical need to rule a world state. First civil code twelve tables of law. Basic legal code for almost 1000 years. Acts of assembly and the senate and public degrees of the emperors.

33

Roman women

Could own property, free to manage their own legal affairs, girls were educated before boys and could read and write. Some aristocratic women held public office. Musicians, painters, priestess, midwives, gladiators.

34

Roman architecture

Used the arch, developed the aqueducts. First to use concrete amphitheater like the colosseum covered 6 acres, held 50,000

35

Roman art as propaganda

Sculpture 100 ft tall marble column erected in 113 bce by emperor Trajan to celebrate his victory over the Dacians. Arches and victory columns used for monumental gateways through which soldiers marched through carrying spoils of war. They also used them as public function advertising authority.

36

Passage grave

New grange Ireland
Architectural method-stacking
Sounds piled on top of another with a hole to put dead bodies in
Delmon were used to support passage great had winter solstice significance

37

Stonehenge England

Built with manpower and ropes within 25 years winter solstice sunshine's on main parts was a burial ground at one time blue sounds believed to have healing powers architectural method post and lentil