Flashcards in Biology3 8C Breathing and respiration Deck (33)
Name 3 poisonous chemicals in tobacco smoke
Nicotine – the addictive agent in tobacco smoke
Carbon monoxide - found in car exhaust
Tar - particulate matter in cigarette smoke
Name 3 things about the alveoli which increase the diffusion of gases from blood to air space (or the other way around)
Large surface area, thin wall, good blood supply
How do you test for carbon dioxide
Lime water goes cloudy when carbon dioxide is bubbled through it.
What is emphysema?
A disease cased by smoking which leaves the sufferer breathless. (The alveoli have lost surface area as the folds disappear.)
What are the alveoli?
Air sacs in your lungs where exchange (swapping) of oxygen and carbon dioxide happens.
Why does your trachea have rings of cartilage?
To keep your airway open
What problem does tar cause in smokers?
Increased risk of lung cancer
Name the two gases exchanged at the alveoli
Oxygen and carbon dioxide
Why does your heart need to beat faster when you exercise?
The heart pumps blood around the body. The blood carries food and oxygen to cells so they can respire and release more energy.
What is anaerobic respiration?
A type of respiration that does not need oxygen.
What is a ciliated epithelial cell?
A special skin cell that has cilia (filament like hairs which wave like anemones!) growing on its surface. They keep the airways clean.
How does your voice box make your voice?
The ligaments inside it vibrate.
What is muscle fatigue?
When you have to stop exercising a muscle group because it hurts. This is caused by the build up of lactic acid.
What is the name of the tube which takes air to the lungs?
Why is carbon dioxide a dangerous gas?
It stops red blood cells carrying so much oxygen and so reduces respiration/ energy release.
What is asthma?
An illness where the muscles in your breathing tubes contract making it hard to breathe out.
Name the part of the skeleton that protects your lungs.
What is oxygen debt?
After strenuous exercise, the body needs
extra oxygen to remove lactic acid.
What parts of your body are used in ventilation?
Your ribs are lifted up and out by your intercostal muscles (This is breathing). Your diaphragm contracts and becomes flatter. This sucks air into your nose and down your trachea into your lungs. You relax and gravity brings your ribs down.
What is mucus?
A sticky liquid that you may call snot!
What problem does nicotine cause in smokers?
It makes smoking addictive (and raises blood pressure so also increases the risk of heart attacks)
Where do fish exchange gases?
What is ventilation?
Taking air into your lungs.
How does your pulse change when you exercise?
It gets faster as your heart beats faster.
What part of the blood carries carbon dioxide?
The liquid part of blood called plasma (a straw yellow clear liquid)
What part of the blood carries oxygen?
Red blood cells.
What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
glucose → lactic acid
How does the shape of the alveoli increase the rate of gas exchange?
They are folded in on themselves which increases the surface area for gas exchange.
How do mucous and cilia keep your lungs clean?
Mucus is a sticky doormat in the tubes of the breathing system which traps dirt and dust. The cilia sweeps it away.