Biomechanics Years 1 & 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biomechanics Years 1 & 2 Deck (85)
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Define Newton's 1st Law

A body continues in a state of rest or moving with constant velocity in a straight line, unless acted upon by an external force.


Define Newton's 2nd Law

When a force acts on an object, the rate of change of momentum experienced by the object is proportional to the size of the force and takes place in the direction in which the force acts.


Define Newton's 3rd Law

For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.


Define Velocity

The rate of change in displacement


How do you calculate velocity?

Velocity (m/s) = Displacement (m)/Time taken (s)


Define Momentum

The quantity of motion possessed by a moving body


How do you calculate momentum?

Momentum (kgm/s) = mass (kg) x velocity (m/s)


Define Acceleration

The rate of change of velocity


How do you calculate acceleration?

Acceleration (m/s/s) = Final velocity - initial velocity / time taken


How do you define centre of mass?

The point where the mass of the body tends to be concentrated and balanced in all directions


What factors affect stability?

- The mass of the body
- Size of the base of support
- Height of the centre of mass
- No. of points in contact with the surface
- Proximity of the line of gravity to the centre of the base of support


What is the line of gravity?

An imaginary line which extends from the centre of mass directly to the ground


How can you increase stability?

- Increase mass of the body/ object
- Increase the size of the base of support
- Lower of the centre of mass
- Increase the number of points in contact with the surface
- Bring the line of gravity inside the base of support


How do you calculate force?

Force (N) = Mass x Acceleration (F=Ma)


Define Force

A push or pull that alters the state of motion of a body. (N)


What is Net Force?

The overall force acting on a body when all individual
forces have been considered


What is a balanced force?

Balanced Forces: When two or more forces acting on a body are equal in size but opposite in direction. – Net Force is ZERO.


What is an unbalanced force?

When force acting in one direction on a body is greater in size than force acting in the opposite direction. – Resulting in Net Force


Name two vertical forces?

Weight & Reaction Force


Name two horizontal forces?

Friction & Air Resistance


Define friction

The force that opposes the motion of two surfaces in contact. (N)


Identify 4 factors that impact upon friction

Roughness or smoothness of footwear or object in contact with the ground.

Roughness or smoothness of the ground or court.

Size of the down force

Temperature of Surface


Identify 4 factors that impact upon air resistance

- Shape of object
- Speed/velocity of release
- Frontal cross sectional area
- Smoothness of surface


What are the 3 components of a lever?

Fulcrum, Effort, Load


What is the fulcrum?

Fixed point of rotation about which the lever moves.


What is the load?

The resistance or weight to be moved. The weight of a human body part to be moved is the load.


What is the effort?

The force being applied that causes the lever to move. The agonist muscle in the human body.


What is the load arm?

The perpendicular distance from the fulcrum to the load.


What is the effort arm?

The perpendicular distance from the fulcrum to the effort.


What is the tip to remember the class of lever?

1-2-3 F-L-E. A lever is classified by which component is in the middle of the other two components.