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Flashcards in Biopac Lesson 15 Deck (18)
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Exercise is really just an increase in the ____ ________ rate caused by an increase in ________ activity

Basal metabolic

Muscular

1

Exercise is _____; there is a progression of events that occur sequentially in response to the desire to increase the metabolism

Phasic

2

The first phase of exercise is called what? Where does it come from? How does it spread?

Anticipatory phase

Comes from cerebral cortex (usually frontal lobe) and spreads via thalamus to the sympathetic nervous system

3

Muscles need energy. Where does the energy from everyday living and light exercise come from?

Fatty acids

4

When the muscles demand more energy, the energy source changes from fatty acids to what?

Carbohydrates

5

Where does the carbohydrate needed for strenuous exercise come from?

Glycogen stored in muscles, liver, blood glucose

6

The energy needed for contraction comes via the ______ initially

Krebs cycle

7

As muscle demand increase, enzymes of the Krebs cycle become saturated. What does this cause?

Increase of pyruvic acid, the end product of glycolysis

Pyruvate is then converted to lactic acid

8

The Effects:
1) The anticipatory phase _______ heart rate & blood pressure by the release of _________.

Increases

Norepinephrine

9

The Effects:
2) Shift from fatty acid metabolism to carb metabolism and resulting lactic acid increase stimulates medullary respiratory centers to increase ______. The drop in pH also causes ________ to muscles producing the most lactic acids. This causes _______ blood flow to those areas, and increased oxygen. The increased oxygen:

Respiration

Vasodilation

Increased

Helps but does not stop the buildup of lactic acid and pyruvate

10

The Effects:
3) The increase in blood flow to the muscles causes an ______ in venous return, which activates the ______ reception in the heart/aorta/carotid arteries, and ______ heart rate (and therefore blood pressure.

Increase

Stretch

Increases

11

The Effects:
4) The lactic/pyruvate build-up plus an increase in ____________, affect the respiratory centers in the pons and medulla causing an _____ in breathing rate

Plasma CO2 levels

Increase

12

The Effects:
5) B/c muscles are only ____% efficient, most of the ATP breakdown is given off as _____, which then activates the hypothalamic brain centers to start ________ mechanisms such as:

25-30%

Heat

Cooling

Sweating, dilating blood vessels close to outer surface

13

The most prolonged mechanism to return to normal is the __________ and _________.

Removal of lactic acid

Respiration

14

As you exercise, your body temperature:

Lowers

15

As you stop exercising, your temperature:

Returns to normal

16

What causes the change in temperature?

Your blood is re-routed to your legs and away from the finger probe.

17

What physiological mechanisms are operating during the post-exercise segment?

Lactic acid is converted to glucose in liver

Blood returns to other parts of the body

Lungs still breathe deeply