Biopsychology Flashcards Preview

A level psychology AQA > Biopsychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biopsychology Deck (130)
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1

The human nervous system is divided into...?

The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system

2

The central nervous system is made up of...?

The brain and spinal cord

3

What is the autonomic nervous system made up of?

Sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system

4

What is the peripheral nervous system made up of?

The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system

5

The brain is the centre of all...?

Conscious awareness

6

Describe the role of the spinal cord in the central nervous system

It’s responsible for reflex actions (involuntary)

Passes messages to and from the brain

Connects the nerves to the peripheral nervous system

7

What is the Peripheral nervous system made up of?

It’s made up of nerves that are outside of the central nervous system

8

When the peripheral nervous system gets information from the outside world, it sends it to...?

The central nervous system

9

When the PNS gets information from the CNS, it sends the info to...?

Muscles and glands in the body

10

The somatic nervous system responds to info from...?

Sensory receptors

11

How does the SNS transmits info to the CNS?

Using sensory neurons, it transmits info from. Receptor cells in the sense organs towards the CNS

12

Where does the SNS receive info and for what?

From the CNS

To direct muscles to act using motor neurons - muscle movement

13

State 2 differences between the CNS and the PNS

1a)CNS = origin of all complex demands + decisions
1b)PNS = Receives and sends messages to the CNS

2a)Entire CNS = encased in bone
2b)PNS = connects the CNS to the organs in the body

14

State all the glands in the endocrine system

Hypothalamus
Pituitary
Thyroid
Adrenals
Pancreas
Ovaries
Testes

15

How do hormones work?

Hormones are secreted by glands into the blood stream and affect any cell in the body that has a receptor for that hormone

16

Describe the autonomic nervous system

It is automatic and involuntary

17

Why is the ANS important in homeostasis?

It controls automatic redness and vital functions e,g breathing/ heartbeat

18

What other system does the ANS work with in the fight or flight response?

The endocrine system

19

What happens during fight or flight?

Stressor is perceived
Hypothalamus activates pituitary gland
Pituitary gland triggers activity in sympathetic nervous system in ANS
Physiological changes = adrenaline leads to heart rate increase
Parasympathetic = when threat is over

20

Define the sympathetic state

This is when the body is involved with fight or flight in repose to a stressful event

The sympathetic nervous system gets the body ready by increasing heart/ breathing rates

21

Describe the parasympathetic state

This is the normal resting state of the body.

22

What is a neuron?

They are nerve cells that process and transmit messages through electrical and chemical signals.

There is 100 billion in the human nervous system = 80% of them is in the brain

23

What are sensory neurons?

Carry messages from the PNS to the CNS. They have long dendrites and short axons.

24

What are motor neurons?

These connect to the CNS to effectors e.g muscles and glands. They have short dendrites and long axons

25

What are dendrites?

They carry nerve impulses from neighbouring neurons towards the cell body

26

What is the function of the relay neuron?

To allow the sensory and motor neurons communicate

27

What are relay neurons?

These connect the sensory neurons to the motor/ other relay neurons.

They have short dendrites and axons.

28

What is the axon?

This carries impulses from the cell body along the length of the neuron. This is covered by the myelin sheath.

29

What is the myelin sheath?

This protects the axon and speeds up transmission of electrical impulse

29

What is the node of ranvier?

This is gaps in the myelin sheath which speed up the transmission of impulse by forcing it to ‘jump’ across the gap