Flashcards in Biopsychology Deck (130)
The human nervous system is divided into...?
The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
The central nervous system is made up of...?
The brain and spinal cord
What is the autonomic nervous system made up of?
Sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system
What is the peripheral nervous system made up of?
The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system
The brain is the centre of all...?
Describe the role of the spinal cord in the central nervous system
It’s responsible for reflex actions (involuntary)
Passes messages to and from the brain
Connects the nerves to the peripheral nervous system
What is the Peripheral nervous system made up of?
It’s made up of nerves that are outside of the central nervous system
When the peripheral nervous system gets information from the outside world, it sends it to...?
The central nervous system
When the PNS gets information from the CNS, it sends the info to...?
Muscles and glands in the body
The somatic nervous system responds to info from...?
How does the SNS transmits info to the CNS?
Using sensory neurons, it transmits info from. Receptor cells in the sense organs towards the CNS
Where does the SNS receive info and for what?
From the CNS
To direct muscles to act using motor neurons - muscle movement
State 2 differences between the CNS and the PNS
1a)CNS = origin of all complex demands + decisions
1b)PNS = Receives and sends messages to the CNS
2a)Entire CNS = encased in bone
2b)PNS = connects the CNS to the organs in the body
State all the glands in the endocrine system
How do hormones work?
Hormones are secreted by glands into the blood stream and affect any cell in the body that has a receptor for that hormone
Describe the autonomic nervous system
It is automatic and involuntary
Why is the ANS important in homeostasis?
It controls automatic redness and vital functions e,g breathing/ heartbeat
What other system does the ANS work with in the fight or flight response?
The endocrine system
What happens during fight or flight?
Stressor is perceived
Hypothalamus activates pituitary gland
Pituitary gland triggers activity in sympathetic nervous system in ANS
Physiological changes = adrenaline leads to heart rate increase
Parasympathetic = when threat is over
Define the sympathetic state
This is when the body is involved with fight or flight in repose to a stressful event
The sympathetic nervous system gets the body ready by increasing heart/ breathing rates
Describe the parasympathetic state
This is the normal resting state of the body.
What is a neuron?
They are nerve cells that process and transmit messages through electrical and chemical signals.
There is 100 billion in the human nervous system = 80% of them is in the brain
What are sensory neurons?
Carry messages from the PNS to the CNS. They have long dendrites and short axons.
What are motor neurons?
These connect to the CNS to effectors e.g muscles and glands. They have short dendrites and long axons
What are dendrites?
They carry nerve impulses from neighbouring neurons towards the cell body
What is the function of the relay neuron?
To allow the sensory and motor neurons communicate
What are relay neurons?
These connect the sensory neurons to the motor/ other relay neurons.
They have short dendrites and axons.
What is the axon?
This carries impulses from the cell body along the length of the neuron. This is covered by the myelin sheath.
What is the myelin sheath?
This protects the axon and speeds up transmission of electrical impulse