Flashcards in Approaches Deck (115)
What do Behaviourists believe about research?
They believe it should be scientific therefore focus on observable bhvr which can be measured and objective.
They only mainly use lab experiments which mostly used non-human like animals e.g Pavlov's dogs
Why do Bhvrists use animals in their studies instead of humans?
They believe that human learning is the same as animal learning. So, they can replace humans in experiments.
What do Behaviourists believe about human bhvr?
Bhvrists believe that normal and abnormal bhvr is learned.
This is learned through classical and operant conditioning
Define classical conditioning
This is when bhvr is learned through associating different stimuli together.
This learning is involuntary for example, flinching after being abused because you associate pain.
What were Pavlov's dogs like before CC?
Food --> Salivation
(Uncontrolled stimuli) (Unconditioned response)
Bell --> No salivation
(Neutral stimuli) (No conditioned response)
What were Pavlov's dogs during CC?
Bell and Food --> Salivation
What were Pavlov's dogs after CC?
Bell --> Salivation
(Conditioned stimuli) (Conditioned response)
Define operant conditioning
This is when a person operates on their environment.
Bhvr is shaped by its consequences and is voluntary bc a person chooses to behave.
It is shaped through positive and negative reinforcement + punishment.
Define positive reinforcement in OC
This is when a reward is given to a specific bhvr.
This then increases the likelihood of this bhvr being shown by the human.
E.g a sticker for being good.
Define negative reinforcement in OC
This is when an animal/ person avoids something unpleasant, so the consequences are positive.
This increases the likelihood of this bhvr being shown.
E.g a student hands their essay on time to not get a detention
Define punishment in OC
This is an unpleasant consequence of a specific bhvr.
This will decreases the likelihood of that bhvr being shown
What is operant conditioning's key research?
The Skinner box (1953):
1. Rats press a lever to receive food = pos. reinforcement
2. Rats press a level to get a electric shock = punishment
3.Rats learned to avoid the electric shock level = neg. reinforcement.
This supports operant conditioning
What are the two key studies in bhvrism?
Pavlov's Dogs (1927) and Skinners Box (1953)
How is the methodology of bhvrism a strength?
An assumption of bhvrsm = research is scientific
Used lab studies to reduce extraneous variables and establish cause and effect.
Allowed it to be replicable and adds to the scientific credibility of bhvrism experiments.
How is stimulus-response reductionism in bhvrism a weakness?
Less internal validity
Bhvrists may have oversimplified the learning process and ignored the meditational processes which is suggested in SLT and cognitive approach.
These processes mediate between stimuli and response = people are more active in their own learning
How is application a strength of the bhvrist approach?
Principles of conditioning has been applied to the real world
E.g token economy systems in jail and schools.
How is the methodology of bhvrism a weakness?
Low ethics - Skinners Box
During this time = no ethical guidelines.
Animals kept in cramped conditions at 2/3rds of their natural weight = so they were always hungry
What are main assumptions of SLT?
All bhvr is learned - like bhvrists - H/E = they believe its a social learning process --> we learn from other people
They believe we learn bhvr through observation and imitation of role models.
Learning can happen directly through conditioning or indirectly through vicarious reinforcement.
Define vicarious reinforcement
Indirectly experiencing reinforcement through observing the consequences of the actions of others.
This is a key factor for imitation
Name all of four meditational process
3. Motor reproduction
What does Attention mean in the meditational processes?
How well we notice the bhvr
What does Retention mean in the meditational processes?
How well we remember the bhvr
What does Motor Reproduction mean in the meditational processes?
The ability of the observer to perform the bhvr
What does Motivation mean in the meditational processes?
The will to perform the bhvr - often determined by the consequence of the bhvr
What are meditational processes and how does this affect bhvr?
These are cognitive factors that mediate (i.e intervene) between the stimulus and response in learning.
This was identified by Bandura
What does the first 2 meditational processes assist with?
Learning a bhvr
What does the last 2 meditational processes assist with?
Producing a bhvr
This is when people (especially children) wish to become more like the people they identify after observing them.
This is because, these role models are seen to be attractive/desirable.
As a result of , the person will have similar characteristics
This is imitating the bhvr of the role model (observers perspective) and the process of demonstrating a bhvr (from the role model)